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Terms in this set (19)

History of Health Care
Early influences (through Middle Ages)
ØHolistic; Illness understood in mystical terms or as part of religious worldview
ØInfectious disease epidemics (e.g., bubonic plague, smallpox): Health meant the survival/absence of disease
Industrial influences (1600s and on)
ØIncreased longevity
•Adequate food supply
•Sanitary engineering—decreased infectious disease
Socioeconomic (SES) influences
Ø1834 philosophy: Pauperism among the able-bodied indicated a moral failing
ØAttitude towards poor: Punitive
ØPeople held individually responsible for SES standing and health maintenance
Public health influences
ØEdwin Chadwick (1800-1890), father of British and American public health
•Environmental sanitation
•Improved health of masses for economic reasons
•Linked health/welfare policies
ØLemuel Shattuck—US public health
•Modeled British system
•Puritan ethic influence re: Work, attitude toward poor
Scientific influences
Ø1800s: Public health change from sanitation to biological control of communicable disease
ØMid-20th century: Antibiotics decreased infectious disease; more chronic disease with aging
ØNow: New emphasis on infectious disease due to antibiotic-resistant organisms; bioterrorism
Influences of special populations
ØVulnerable populations: Greatest risk
•Minorities—lower quality care (even when insured)
ØHealth: Related to SES, education, lifestyle
Political/economic influences
ØPolicy: Determine desired outcomes
ØEconomics: How/to whom resources distributed
ØGovernmental programs: Social Security Act, Medicare, Medicaid