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the social and political system of France; under this system, the people of France were divided into three large social classes, or estates
husband of Marie Antoinette; bored with the affairs of the state and preferred doing physical activities instead; wanted to improve the lives of the common people, but failed to make decisions to make improvements
wife of Louis XVI; pretty, but unpopular because of her spending and involvement in court affairs; spent hours playing cards
an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in Frances
a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Declaration of the Rights of Man
statement of revolutionary ideas adopted by the National Assembly, stated that "men are born and remain free and equal rights"
a French congree with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791
a person who leaves his native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution
in the French Revolution, a radical roup made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution
the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France (1793-1797)
Reign of Terror
the period (1793-1794) when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
led a French army against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia; led expedition to Egypt
a direct voe in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve of reject a proposal
a formal agreement - especially one between the pope and a government dealing with the control of Church affairs
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet
he set out to build a French "republic of virtue"; his rule became known as the Reign of Terror
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering and leaving a city or region
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe; intended to destroy Great Britian's economy
a member of a loosely organized fighing force that makes surprise atacks on enemy troops occuying his or her country
a conflict (1808-1813) in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive out Napoleon's French troops
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land
the site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power
brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and queen and again becoming emperor of France
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which he European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
balance of power
a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
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