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18 terms

Chapter 12: Criminal Justice Process: The Investigation

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arrest
person suspected of a crime is taken into custody
arrest warrant
court order commanding that the person named in it taken into custody
probable cause
arrest means having reasonable belief that a specific person has committed a crime
What is a drug courier profile? Why do some feel it's unfair?
help establish probable cause for arrest. its unfair to use typical age, race, personal appearance, behavior and mannerisms.
corroborate
confirm the informants tip with information
A police officer can stop an individual on the street based on _____________ and do a limited pat-down called __________.
reasonable suspicion; stop and frisk.
When can a police officer use "deadly force"?
necessary to prevent escape, poses a significant, threat of death or serious physical harm
Describe the balance between an individual's privacy and government's rights to search and seizure
People can't just go through your stuff without a search warrant
exclusionary rule
not mean that the defendant cannot be tried or convicted, but evidence seized in an unlawful search can't be used in trial
affidavit
sworn statement of facts and circumstances
What is a search warrant?
court order that states specific place to be searched and the particular items to be seized
searches without warrants can be made when:
-search in a lawful arrest
-stop and frisk
-consent
-borders and airports
-vehicle searches
-plain view
-hot pursuit
-emergency situations
When and where are suspicion-less searches usually conducted?
Border search, highway sobriety checkpoints, drug/alcohol tests.
racial profiling
inappropriate use of race as a factor in identifying people who may have broken the law.
interrogate
question an accused person
How does the Constitution protect people from self-incrimination?
they have the right to remain silent
What happened as a result of the Miranda vs. Arizonia?
Police are required to inform people taken into custody of their rights
custodial interrogation
the person is in custody and is being interrogated by the police