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The Stages of Photosynthesis
1. Light-dependent Reaction: chlorophyll absorbs light energy to make carrier NADPH
2. Calvin cycle: Carbon Dioxide, ATP and NADPH are used to make glucose.
The First Stage of Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis: glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid + NADH + 4 ATP (net gain of 2 ATP)
The Second and Third Stages of Cellular Respiration (with oxygen present)
Krebs cycle: pyruvic acid is used to form NADH and FADH2 + 2 ATP
ETC: NADH and FADH2 and oxygen are used to form 32 ATP
The Fourth and Fifth Stages of Cellular Respiration (without oxygen present)
Lactic Acid Fermentation: pyruvic acid + NADH ---> lactic acid + NAD positive and allows glycolysis to continue.
Makes muscles sore and fatigued.
Alcoholic fermentation: pyruvic acid + NADH ---> ethyl alcohol + CO2 + NAD positive.
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