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James I

Came to the throne after Elizabeth I as Mary Stuart's son, strong believer of divine right

Charles I

(r. 1625-1649) like his father resorted to extra-parliamentary measures (taxes), challenges local political influence of nobles and landowners

Ship money

Tax that Charles I tried to levy without Parliament's consent

Petition of Right

(1629) Required that henceforth there should be no forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament

Archbishop Laud

Tried to impose on Scotland the English episcopal system and a prayer book almost identical to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer with Charles I and caused a rebellion

John Pym

Leader of English Long Parliament and critic of James I and Charles I

Oliver Cromwell

A country squire of iron discipline and strong, independent religious sentiment, very strong army


supporters of Parliament


supporter of Charles I and II

Pride's Purge

(1648) troops under command of Colonel Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the king

Rump Parliament

English Parliament after Colonel Pride's purge

The Commonwealth

republic ruling England

The Restoration

(1660) the monarchy was restored

Charles II

(r. 1660-1685) set a new tone, had secret Catholic sympathies, charismatic king

Declaration of Indulgence (2)

1. Charles II- suspended laws against Catholics and Protestants
2. James II

Clarendon Codes

Acts (corporation, uniformity, conventicle, five-mile) excluding nonconformists from holding civil or military office

Test Act

series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Catholics and Nonconformists (Charles II)

James II

demanded test act be repealed, dissolved Parliament

Glorious Revolution

(1688) called by William III or Orange as he invaded England (called by Parliament)

William and Mary

William III or Orange and Mary Stuart, recognized a Bill of Rights that limited monarchy

Bill of Rights

passed by William and Mary, limiting powers of the monarchy and guaranteeing civil liberties of upper classes

Toleration Act

(1689) permitted worship of Protestants only (church of England) and outlawed Catholics

Importance of Trade

shipping provided grain, much prosperity, supported a vast shipbuilding and ship supply industry

Tolerant Religious Policy

Calvinist reformed church was official church but not established

Bank of Amsterdam

continued to finance European trade, stock exchange remained an important financial institution

States General

central Netherlands government, dominated by Holland


hereditary chief executive

Navigation Acts

restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies

Anglo-Dutch Wars

English vs. Dutch over control of seas and trade routes

Wars vs. Louis XIV

French monarch:
-early wars: "devolution" of land

William III of Orange

married Mary Stuart and ruled England, Protestant, stadholder

Parlements/Estates General

regional judicial bodies, Louis clashed with the Parlements of Paris, which had the right to register royal laws

Cardinal Richelieu

(1585-1642) one of Louis XIV's powerful chief ministers, Cardinal of the Church, focused on centralizing the government, circumscribed many of the political privileges Henry IV had extended to French Protestants (1598)

The Fronde

(1649-1652) a series of widespread rebellions among French nobles and commoners as they resisted the power of Mazarin, unsuccessful, convinced Louis that heavy-handed policies could endanger the throne

Louis XIV

(r. 1643-1715), absolute monarch, had many advisers, but after Mazarin's death, assumed personal control of government, many wars


the largest secular structure in Europe, permanent residence of Louis XIV, nobles could live in it for exchange for loyalty to king, most important to Louis's war, peace, religion, economic activities


royal civil servants

Jean Baptiste Colbert

Louis's finance minister and France benefited from his guidance


economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of highest importance

Jansenists vs. Jesuits

a group in opposition to the theology, followers of the teachings of St. Augustine that many protestants adopted, opposed royal authority and the political influence of the Jesuits vs. a group fiercely loyal to the authority of the Pope

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Louis attempt to unite France religiously in a anti-Huguenot campaign

War of Devolution

(1667-1668) conflicts in between France vs. Spain and Unites Netherlands, caused by Louis's first wife's alleged right to inherit the Spanish Netherlands

Dutch War

Louis invaded the Netherlands (1672-1678)

War of the League of Augsburg

(1688-1697) broke out and lasted 9 years after alliances were made against France (League of Augsburg)

Charles II of Spain "El Hechizado"

the last Habsburg king of Spain, died 1700 with no heir

War of Spanish Succession

(1701-1714) covered western Europe, France's military was unprepared while the English had superior weapons, ended with the Peace of Utrecht, which gave England Gibraltar and Minorca (power base in the Mediterranean)

Frederick William "The Great Elector"

built an army in Prussia collected taxes by imposing his authority, German nobles required to be loyal to him, broke local nobles estates, organizing royal bureaucracy


German nobles loyal to Frederick William "The Great Elector" in exchange for obedience of their serfs, dominated the military and unified Prussia

The Junker-Crown Cooperation

the German noble landlords' loyalty to Frederick William in exchange for obedience of their serfs

East Prussia-Brandenburg-Mark/ Ravensburg/ Cleves

the house of the Hohenzollern were scattered all across here

Frederick III (King Frederick I)

son of the Great Elector, not very "Prussian", built palaces, was a patron of arts

Frederick William I

eccentric but effective, organized bureaucracy, grew military (1st priority)

The Diet (Sejm)

Poland's central legislative body, included only nobles and specifically excluded representatives form corporate bodies, such of towns

Liberum Veto- Exploding the Diet

If one member of the diet disagreed with the entire council, the council could disband, unanimous voting required

Noble Liberty- Chaos

would result in the disappearance or Poland from the map in the late 18th century

John III Sobieski

(1683) had a spectacular army, lad Poland for 22 years, victory over Turks at the siege of Vienna

Bohemia-Austria- Hungary

Habsburg empire sought to control them

Thirty-Years War (results)

the Austrian Habsburgs had hoped that it would bring all of Germany into their control and that all would return to Catholicism, without Spain, they were on their own

Wars vs. Turks

The Ottoman empire tried to advance into Germany but Leopold I held them at bay, Hungary only liberated in 1699


Hungarian nobles, often Calvinist

Leopold I

(r. 1658-1705) resisted Ottoman Empire, extended territorial holdings in Romania and the Balkan Peninsula while keeping an eye on Mediterranean trade

Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy

Holy Roman Empire their control units

Charles VI

had no male heir therefore a big problem for the Holy Roman Empire

Pragmatic Sanction (1713)

legal basis for a line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty through the daughter of Charles VI- Maria Theresa


Peter the Great traveled to North-Western Europe and visited shipyards in England and Netherlands, desiring to create what he had witnessed

The Great Empire

A Russian Diplomatic mission sent to western Europe in 1697-1698

St. Peterburg

Founded by Peter the Great, imitating Louis XIV's Versailles, symbolized the western orientation of Russia and his intention of holding the Baltic

Table of Ranks

established by Peter the Great to draw the nobility into state service, to create ranks that focused on the bureaucracy rather than on lineage


created to oversee government affairs by Peter the Great to completely reorganized the government, those who were in charge were to be loyal to the tsar

Senate and Colleges

Peter I looked to Swedish institutions

Holy Synod

new organization that ruled the church made by Peter the Great

Old Believers

Russian religious group who refused to accept reforms on the church

Great Northern War (Narva and Poltava)

Peter defeated the Swedes in 1709 and then possessed an ice-free port


(384-322 BCE) came up with the theory that the earth was the center of the solar system


(90-168 BCE) his work was spread over the centuries, the used as a basis for systems


(130-200 CE) second century Greek physician, specializing in the human body


(428-348 BCE) classical Greek philosopher, mathematician and founder of Academy of Athens

Four humours

Galen's postulate that the human body contained blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile


the study of the movements and relative positions of stars interpreted as having an influence on human affairs


the significance of numbers


medieval forerunner of chemistry, transformation of matter


religious beliefs based on the writings of Hermes


(1473-1543) a Polish priest and astronomer, challenged Ptolemaic ideas and created the notion that all planets revolved around the sun (heliocentrism)


(1546-1601) Danish astronomer, did not accept Copernicus's theory, was a geocentrist that produced large amounts of astronomical data to support his claim


(1571-1630) Brahe's assistant, supported Copernicus, concluded that the planets traveled in an elliptical motion around the sun


(1564-1642) Italian mathematician and neutral philosopher, mathematical argument was found in nature


(1642-1727) addressed the planetary question and provided the basis in physics, inertia and gravity

Francis Bacon

(1561-1626) English lawyer, writer, historian, philosopher and is regarded as the "Father of Empiricism", set the stage for scientific work to develop

Rene Descartes

(1596-1650) mathematician, invented analytic geometry, developed scientific method that focused on deductive reasoning, divided things in existence into 2 categories (mind and body)


(1493-1551) Swiss physician, botanist, alchemist and astrologer

Robert Boyle

(1627-1691) Chemist, author of The Sceptical Chemist, which represented the investigations of nature's elements

Andreas Vesalius

(1514-1564) Flemish anatomist, contradicted many of Galen's regarding the human body

William Harvey

(1578-1657) English physician, developed the modern theory of blood flow, with arteries and veins circulating oxygen through human tissue

Royal Societies

New universities founded as supporters of natural science and philosophy

Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle

(1661-1717) educated in science, only woman to be accepted int he royal society of London

Emilie de Chatelet

(1706-1749) aided Voltaire in his writings about Newton

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