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96 terms

!AP Euro Unit 3

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James I
Came to the throne after Elizabeth I as Mary Stuart's son, strong believer of divine right
Charles I
(r. 1625-1649) like his father resorted to extra-parliamentary measures (taxes), challenges local political influence of nobles and landowners
Ship money
Tax that Charles I tried to levy without Parliament's consent
Petition of Right
(1629) Required that henceforth there should be no forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament
Archbishop Laud
Tried to impose on Scotland the English episcopal system and a prayer book almost identical to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer with Charles I and caused a rebellion
John Pym
Leader of English Long Parliament and critic of James I and Charles I
Oliver Cromwell
A country squire of iron discipline and strong, independent religious sentiment, very strong army
Roundheads
supporters of Parliament
Cavaliers
supporter of Charles I and II
Pride's Purge
(1648) troops under command of Colonel Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the king
Rump Parliament
English Parliament after Colonel Pride's purge
The Commonwealth
republic ruling England
The Restoration
(1660) the monarchy was restored
Charles II
(r. 1660-1685) set a new tone, had secret Catholic sympathies, charismatic king
Declaration of Indulgence (2)
1. Charles II- suspended laws against Catholics and Protestants
2. James II
Clarendon Codes
Acts (corporation, uniformity, conventicle, five-mile) excluding nonconformists from holding civil or military office
Test Act
series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Catholics and Nonconformists (Charles II)
James II
demanded test act be repealed, dissolved Parliament
Glorious Revolution
(1688) called by William III or Orange as he invaded England (called by Parliament)
William and Mary
William III or Orange and Mary Stuart, recognized a Bill of Rights that limited monarchy
Bill of Rights
passed by William and Mary, limiting powers of the monarchy and guaranteeing civil liberties of upper classes
Toleration Act
(1689) permitted worship of Protestants only (church of England) and outlawed Catholics
Importance of Trade
shipping provided grain, much prosperity, supported a vast shipbuilding and ship supply industry
Tolerant Religious Policy
Calvinist reformed church was official church but not established
Bank of Amsterdam
continued to finance European trade, stock exchange remained an important financial institution
States General
central Netherlands government, dominated by Holland
Stadholder
hereditary chief executive
Navigation Acts
restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies
Anglo-Dutch Wars
English vs. Dutch over control of seas and trade routes
Wars vs. Louis XIV
French monarch:
-early wars: "devolution" of land
William III of Orange
married Mary Stuart and ruled England, Protestant, stadholder
Parlements/Estates General
regional judicial bodies, Louis clashed with the Parlements of Paris, which had the right to register royal laws
Cardinal Richelieu
(1585-1642) one of Louis XIV's powerful chief ministers, Cardinal of the Church, focused on centralizing the government, circumscribed many of the political privileges Henry IV had extended to French Protestants (1598)
The Fronde
(1649-1652) a series of widespread rebellions among French nobles and commoners as they resisted the power of Mazarin, unsuccessful, convinced Louis that heavy-handed policies could endanger the throne
Louis XIV
(r. 1643-1715), absolute monarch, had many advisers, but after Mazarin's death, assumed personal control of government, many wars
Versailles
the largest secular structure in Europe, permanent residence of Louis XIV, nobles could live in it for exchange for loyalty to king, most important to Louis's war, peace, religion, economic activities
Intendants
royal civil servants
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Louis's finance minister and France benefited from his guidance
Mercantilism
economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of highest importance
Jansenists vs. Jesuits
a group in opposition to the theology, followers of the teachings of St. Augustine that many protestants adopted, opposed royal authority and the political influence of the Jesuits vs. a group fiercely loyal to the authority of the Pope
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis attempt to unite France religiously in a anti-Huguenot campaign
War of Devolution
(1667-1668) conflicts in between France vs. Spain and Unites Netherlands, caused by Louis's first wife's alleged right to inherit the Spanish Netherlands
Dutch War
Louis invaded the Netherlands (1672-1678)
War of the League of Augsburg
(1688-1697) broke out and lasted 9 years after alliances were made against France (League of Augsburg)
Charles II of Spain "El Hechizado"
the last Habsburg king of Spain, died 1700 with no heir
War of Spanish Succession
(1701-1714) covered western Europe, France's military was unprepared while the English had superior weapons, ended with the Peace of Utrecht, which gave England Gibraltar and Minorca (power base in the Mediterranean)
Frederick William "The Great Elector"
built an army in Prussia collected taxes by imposing his authority, German nobles required to be loyal to him, broke local nobles estates, organizing royal bureaucracy
Junkers
German nobles loyal to Frederick William "The Great Elector" in exchange for obedience of their serfs, dominated the military and unified Prussia
The Junker-Crown Cooperation
the German noble landlords' loyalty to Frederick William in exchange for obedience of their serfs
East Prussia-Brandenburg-Mark/ Ravensburg/ Cleves
the house of the Hohenzollern were scattered all across here
Frederick III (King Frederick I)
son of the Great Elector, not very "Prussian", built palaces, was a patron of arts
Frederick William I
eccentric but effective, organized bureaucracy, grew military (1st priority)
The Diet (Sejm)
Poland's central legislative body, included only nobles and specifically excluded representatives form corporate bodies, such of towns
Liberum Veto- Exploding the Diet
If one member of the diet disagreed with the entire council, the council could disband, unanimous voting required
Noble Liberty- Chaos
would result in the disappearance or Poland from the map in the late 18th century
John III Sobieski
(1683) had a spectacular army, lad Poland for 22 years, victory over Turks at the siege of Vienna
Bohemia-Austria- Hungary
Habsburg empire sought to control them
Thirty-Years War (results)
the Austrian Habsburgs had hoped that it would bring all of Germany into their control and that all would return to Catholicism, without Spain, they were on their own
Wars vs. Turks
The Ottoman empire tried to advance into Germany but Leopold I held them at bay, Hungary only liberated in 1699
Magyars
Hungarian nobles, often Calvinist
Leopold I
(r. 1658-1705) resisted Ottoman Empire, extended territorial holdings in Romania and the Balkan Peninsula while keeping an eye on Mediterranean trade
Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy
Holy Roman Empire their control units
Charles VI
had no male heir therefore a big problem for the Holy Roman Empire
Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
legal basis for a line of inheritance within the Habsburg dynasty through the daughter of Charles VI- Maria Theresa
Westernization
Peter the Great traveled to North-Western Europe and visited shipyards in England and Netherlands, desiring to create what he had witnessed
The Great Empire
A Russian Diplomatic mission sent to western Europe in 1697-1698
St. Peterburg
Founded by Peter the Great, imitating Louis XIV's Versailles, symbolized the western orientation of Russia and his intention of holding the Baltic
Table of Ranks
established by Peter the Great to draw the nobility into state service, to create ranks that focused on the bureaucracy rather than on lineage
Streltsy
created to oversee government affairs by Peter the Great to completely reorganized the government, those who were in charge were to be loyal to the tsar
Senate and Colleges
Peter I looked to Swedish institutions
Holy Synod
new organization that ruled the church made by Peter the Great
Old Believers
Russian religious group who refused to accept reforms on the church
Great Northern War (Narva and Poltava)
Peter defeated the Swedes in 1709 and then possessed an ice-free port
Aristotle
(384-322 BCE) came up with the theory that the earth was the center of the solar system
Ptolemty
(90-168 BCE) his work was spread over the centuries, the used as a basis for systems
Galen
(130-200 CE) second century Greek physician, specializing in the human body
Plato
(428-348 BCE) classical Greek philosopher, mathematician and founder of Academy of Athens
Four humours
Galen's postulate that the human body contained blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile
Astrology
the study of the movements and relative positions of stars interpreted as having an influence on human affairs
Numerology
the significance of numbers
Alchemy
medieval forerunner of chemistry, transformation of matter
Hermaticism
religious beliefs based on the writings of Hermes
Copernicus
(1473-1543) a Polish priest and astronomer, challenged Ptolemaic ideas and created the notion that all planets revolved around the sun (heliocentrism)
Brahe
(1546-1601) Danish astronomer, did not accept Copernicus's theory, was a geocentrist that produced large amounts of astronomical data to support his claim
Kepler
(1571-1630) Brahe's assistant, supported Copernicus, concluded that the planets traveled in an elliptical motion around the sun
Galileo
(1564-1642) Italian mathematician and neutral philosopher, mathematical argument was found in nature
Newton
(1642-1727) addressed the planetary question and provided the basis in physics, inertia and gravity
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) English lawyer, writer, historian, philosopher and is regarded as the "Father of Empiricism", set the stage for scientific work to develop
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650) mathematician, invented analytic geometry, developed scientific method that focused on deductive reasoning, divided things in existence into 2 categories (mind and body)
Paracelsus
(1493-1551) Swiss physician, botanist, alchemist and astrologer
Robert Boyle
(1627-1691) Chemist, author of The Sceptical Chemist, which represented the investigations of nature's elements
Andreas Vesalius
(1514-1564) Flemish anatomist, contradicted many of Galen's regarding the human body
William Harvey
(1578-1657) English physician, developed the modern theory of blood flow, with arteries and veins circulating oxygen through human tissue
Royal Societies
New universities founded as supporters of natural science and philosophy
Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle
(1661-1717) educated in science, only woman to be accepted int he royal society of London
Emilie de Chatelet
(1706-1749) aided Voltaire in his writings about Newton