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50 terms

History WW1

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nationalism
a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
militarism
the policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparedness for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy
Allies
the group of nations - originally consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia and later joined by the United States, Italy, and others - that opposed the Central Powers
Central Powers
the group of nations - led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire - that opposed the Allies in World War I
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austrian throne
no man's land
an unoccupied region between opposing armies
trench warfare
military operations in which the opposing forces attack and counterattack from systems of fortified ditches rather than on an open battlefield.
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915
Zimmermann note
a message sent in 1917 by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance and promising to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if the United States entered World War I
Eddie Rickenbacker
famous fighter pilot of World War I, was well known as a racecar driver before the war.
Selective Service Act
a law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register for military service
convoy system
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat - German submarine - attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
American Expeditionary Force
the U.S. forces, led by General John Pershing, who fought with the Allies in Europe during World War I
General John J. Pershing
leader of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
Alvin York
sought exemption as a conscientious objector pointing out that the Bible says, "Thou shalt not kill". He eventually decided that it was morally acceptable to fight if the cause was just. He is one of America's greatest war heroes
conscientious objector
a person who refuses, on moral grounds, to participate in warfare
armistice
a truce, or agreement to end an armed conflict
War Industries Board
an agency established during World War I to increase efficiency and discourage waste in war-related industries
Bernard M. Baruch
leader of the War Industries Board
propaganda
a kind of biased communication designed to influence people's thoughts and actions
George Creel
head of the Committee on Public Information
Espionage and Sedition Acts
two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in World War I
Great Migration
the large-scale movement of African Americans from the South to Northern cities in the early 20th century
Fourteen Points
the principles making up President Woodrow Wilson's plan for world peace following World War I
League of Nations
an association of nations established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace
Georges Clemenceau
the French premier, that had lived through two German invasions of France and was determined to prevent future invasions
David Lloyd George
the British prime minister, won reelection on the slogan "Make Germany Pay"
Treaty of Versailles
the 1919 peace treaty at the end of World War I which established new nations, borders, and war reparations
reparations
the compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage or injury it inflicted during a war
war-guilt clause
a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for World War I
Henry Cabot Lodge
led conservative senators that were suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression. They wanted the constitutional right of Congress to declare war included int eh treaty.
German continually violate international laws of war by
targeting passenger commercial ships without warning
Why did the Germans target commercial ships?
Because it was carrying "contraband" 4200 cases of ammunition
What did Germans promise to do?
To give warning before attacking non-military vessels
When did Germany finally announce a return to "wrestricied submarine warfare"
February 1917
What does AEF stand for?
American Expeditionary Forces
Who controlled the AEF?
General John J. Preshing
Who are the "doughboys"?
American troops
When did a small force of "doughboys" arrived in France?
July 4, 1917
What was the Selective Service Act?
The American war draft.
How many signed up under the Selective Service Act?
10 million
When did the first large unit of trained Americans arrive just in time for the second battle of the Marne River?
June 1918
When was General Preshing in control of 500,000 men?
August 1918
In what dogfight over France was Quentin Roosevelt killed?
Cheateau Thirry
What was the Battle of Sedan?
Americans slipped 50 miles behind German lines to cut the railroad which supplied the German Front.
October 1918
More than 1 million Americans took part in the Battle of the Argomene Front, smashing through German defenses.
November 11, 1918
Armistice - an agreement to stop fighting was signed
How many months did fighting continue?
5 months
How many soldiers from both sides were killed?
50, 280
What made a difference in the war?
American replacement troops