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1925 Trial of John Scopes, Tennessee teacher accused of violating state law prohibiting teaching of the theory of evolution; it became a nationally celebrated confrontation between religious fundamentalism and civil liberties. scopes trial reflected enduring tension between two definitions of american freedom. Chrisitan fundamentalists, clung to traditional idea of "moral" liberty- voluntary adherence to time-honored religious beliefs. evolution contradicted the bible which they believed to be literal. defenders included American Civil Liberties Union which had persuaded him to violate the law in order to test its constitutionality, freedom ment above all the right to independent thought and individual self-expression. Tennessee law offered lesson in dangers of religious intolerance and merger of church and state. trial highlight when Clarence Darrow called William Jenings Bryan to stand as "expert witness" on Bible. he ended up admitting to not believing literally everything in bible opending door to nonliteral interpretation. jury found him guilty but got out on technicality
• Scopes "Monkey" Trial
○ About Scopes substitute teacher in Tennessee broke new law against teaching evolution in High Schools 1925
○ Challenge by the ACLU- American Civil Liberties Union convinces scope to teach it
§ New social group at the time
○ Fundamentalist movement, witness to stand was William Jennings Bryan- Christian Fundamentalist, Democrat and beloved by Populists
§ Campaigns on religious ideas- becomes well recognized and respected figure, travel around america giving speeches, well known
□ Religion and politics intertwined
□ Proponent of social gospel- changes responsibility of Christian from private to public social justice good of world responsibility
□ Argues his speeches is attempt is to keep America moral and christian
§ Start witness for prosecution arguing law upheld not acceptable to teach
□ Christian Fundamentalist like Bryan
® Takes Bible very literally
○ Charles Darrow chief lawyer for accused, able to make Bryan look foolish pushing him on difficulties of fundemental belieiving everything in bible was real- make science and religion look incompatable
○ Bryan not necessarily a fundamentalist but highly religious, willing to say some things but doesn't take things always literally, understands flaws of fundamentalists
○ Prosecution wins but conviction is overturned by techencality
○ Victory of Christian Fundamentalists
§ Other anti-evolution laws being put into place like Mississippi and Arkansas
□ Along coasts and cities anti-evolution not gaining traction
□ Where popular is in south, rural
® Protect themselves from major cities and elite places
• Scopes Trial becomes one of first publicized legal circuses
○ Dayton Tennessee turned into every newspaper has reporter there, radio clips played
§ Advances in tech used to publicize event
○ Papers release special editions to report on what is going on at trial
○ Reel clips take
§ First news reel clips taken and used for this
○ Tech advances to make it a national trial
§ Plessy not publicized in same way because of lack of tech
• Scopes trial takes on own life because after WWI america has identity crisis
○ What does it mean to be american
• Scopes Trial Consequences
○ Is America a frontier Christian nation made up of good americans or is America a tech pioneering outwardly looking nation
§ Issue of identity
§ Fundamentalist
□ Support prohibition, strict laws against moral behavior, against homosexuality becoming more recognized in city
□ In rural increasing legislation against discussin contraception, regulation sexual lives, regulation clothing, blasphemy laws, protect identity of america as christian moral nation
□ Concerned see america s christion republic, successful because of combo of chrisitanity and republicanism- educated individuals who participating in electing and are in gov
□ Involved in social reform groups
§ Defense
□ America as modernizing naiton become greate through tech and modernizing advances, why its superpower
□ Entreprenurail spirity why successful
□ Interested legislating workers wage working laws, social reform organization
○ Issue what is america going to be?
§ Christian moral republic
§ Industrial tech advanced society
○ American Civil Liberties Union- social group represents American concerns after WWI 1920
§ Founded to protect anti-war people in 1920s as main goal
§ 2 of 3 founders were pacifists during war and involved in protecting civil liberties of pacifists
□ Right to object to war
§ Big concerns at first are anti-war protesters being protected, and freedom of speech
□ Freedom of speech not well loved clause in bill of rights before 1920
® Not talked about much
® Gov trampled freedom of speech and people didn't really object
® In most states easy to prove someone was libeling you, libel claims held up in court
□ Higher amount of conscientous objectors in WWI not just religious like previous wars
® Ideological basis to objections to war- harder for Americans to interpret and understand
◊ See as unpatriotic, against what america stands for
® Begin to build argument about free speech not seen before- right to express rejection to war should be protected by gov
§ Freedom speech hot issue
□ Linked to identity, what is america
® For fundamentalists harder to shut down atheist talk and vice versa
◊ Scopes trial part- can objectional ideas be spoken
} Lawyer Darrow ardent atheist, Bryan opposite
- Get along well, both walk away with understanding that conversations have to happen
w Neither will totally win war of public opinino
w Darrow continues to crusade for atheism but stops attacking christianity in same way
} Is america christian nation, atheist nation, place for disagreeing?
○ Becomes champion for labor groups, increasingly push for labor reforms protec labor unions
○ Support womens groups
§ One of founders if woman lawyer, fights for womens suffrage, helps write amendment
§ Crusades for right for women to have equal freedom of speech as men
○ Small amount against Jim crow laws- not really concerned about race at this time
§ The Great Gatsby exemplifies or challenges American Dream
○ About eccentric millionaire in love with neighbor's wife
○ Narrated by younger man taken under Gatsby's wing watching his fall
○ Book flop in 1920s Fitzgerald feels like failure
○ Highlights realities of 20s
§ Enormously rich as well as prohibition and issues, difference between rich and poor, morality, split between earners and bootleggers
○ People learned to love Jazz
○ American Dream according to Fitzgerald
§ Afford leisure activities and things
□ Half owned radio
□ Half in urban access to transportation
□ Rise of movies
§ Choices in life opportunities, choices in consumerism shown in department stores
§ Women doing vast amount of purchasing, women wanted choices to reflect class, opinion, beliefs
§ On one hand about money to have choices consume leisure things live in nuclear family style home, on other hand not only part and doesn't bring happiness
§ Fitzgerald wanted to marry woman he loved
□ Making choices to make your own life
□ Sense of independence
□ Romantic love and marriage
® Idea by 1920 2 and 3 generations choosing partner because of love not arranged, facing realities its hard comes into conflict with economic gain, match well personality wise
□ Is it american dream to make bad choices
○ Increasingly developing tension between urban and rural life
§ Nick Caraway new arrival to urban scene
§ Seems that moral assumptions of rural world not same as urban world which has speakeasies
§ Tension- is there more than one american dream, different vision of americas
□ Urban easy to get alcohol, america as superpower, cosmopolitan center, gay communities more free time, time can be yourself
□ In rural not much alcohol, community based place, good of community more important than good of individual, still mass consumerision and increasing connection to urban through radios, movies, magazines
○ Reflected on over the top-ness of the age
stock market crash November 6, 1929 losing more than 10 bisllion in market value. stock market crash didnt by itself cause depression. signs econmic trouble before. real estate speculation, banks failing, mortgages foreclosed, highly unequal distribution of income and prolonged depression in farm regions reduced American purchasing power. european demand for american goods declined. wiped out thousands of investors, greatly reduced business and consumer confidence. global financial system based on gold ill equipped to deal with downturn. banks failed world wide as depositors withdrew money. 1929-1932 prices fell of shares, stocks fells, more than 11 million american out of jobs. transformed american life- hundreds of thousands took to road in search of work, thousands evicted, ramshavkly shantytowns Hoovervilles. people moved back to farms to try to grow own food but little success. image big business collapsed. resignation from some, protests from others. hoover's response- belt tightening, gov intervention to aid jobless would do little to spur economic recover and encourage americans to rely on gov charity to address misfortune. remained committed to associattional actions. put faith in efforts by local charity organizations to assis and put faith in voluntary steps by business to maintain employment and investment.
• The Great Depression
○ Causes
§ Stock market crash 1929 doesn't cause, is symptom
§ Gets worse over time 1933 rock bottom until 1937 crashes again
§ Slump in consumption, everyone who can buy car already has one
§ Banks are lending more than they have in vaults
□ No banking regulations yet
□ WWI destabalizes international economy so go away from gold standard
® Cattapults econonmy 1920s, inflation
® Banks feel free to lend without regard for what they have
§ Companies had to fire people when people not buying as much products in 1920s, also laid off when crash
□ What produced not in line with what consumed, over production second industrial revolution, too much stuff- not as important in argument for cause
□ More symptom of crash than cause
§ Rise purchasing things on credit- buy things without having the money to pay it back
□ How 1920s looks as affluent as they do
□ Payment plan to afford leisure living
□ Extends what banks have and what people can afford to pay
§ Dust Bowl
□ Cause and symptom exacerbates
□ Bread basket region incapable of supporting crops
§ Low cost agricultural products
□ Farmers not making enough money and couldn't pay off loans
□ More symptom
§ International banking crisis
□ 1920s american banks increasingly international in scope, buying and lending internationally
□ Tied america commercially to world, tied to finances of international world WWI
® Germany owes reparation to France US GB
□ As go from gold standard
® Germany stops paying back its loans, Germany in deep recession
® Engalnd and france start calling in loans as well as America
® System crashes on itself
◊ Gov call in loans from commercial banks, banks have to call in loans from people lent money to
} Since not gold standard, not as much cash as lent in various places before
} Contraction in economy
- Means if had 50$ in stock can be worth 5 or less
w Problem
w Most americans not involved in stock markets, have small savings accounts, not bank accounts
w Average american price of goods go up while wages stays same or decreases
□ All start happening late 1927 early 1928
® Stock market crash black Friday 1929 stock markets not doing well over a year, concerns stability of america's economy
○ 1929 bad for corporations, wealthy
§ Not as bad immediately for everyone else
Great Plains counties where millions of tons of topsoil were blown away from parched farmland in the 1930s; massive migration of farm families followed. period of unusually dry weather worsened depressions impact on rural america. john steinbecks novel the grapes of wrath.
○ Scary to people
○ For much of american history, expansion and farming as what america does is main idea of America, image, what they do
○ Scary for farmers
§ What do with themselves
○ AAA encourage farmers to leave land lay fallow scary for farmers
○ Not farmers feel welfare program- paid to not do work
§ Combat FDR gives Hollywood money to produce documentaries about programs and why put in place
• Movie The Plow that Broke the Plains 1937 Farming Educational Documentary
○ Dust Bowl and why new deal plans are good thing
○ Well respected director
○ Hollywood likes film, concerned about being tool of state, rebel against film later saying propaganda
○ Other groups worried, object to new deal don't like documentary, others don't like how presented why Dust Bowl happened

○ Country high winds and sun, no water- rivers streams, little rain
○ Cattleman's paradise once
§ Fortune in beef
○ More people moving in
○ Agricultural technology used on plains
○ Lonely people, hard years, rain failed them
○ Great day coming, day new profits, - WWI
§ Wheat prices soar, sending food overseas
§ Major agricultural technology
□ Covering more land
§ Showing new agriculture with machines comparing with war tanks, winning the war
§ Agriculture helped win the war
○ Reached golden age and plowed the plains, millions of new acres
§ Had man power, invented new machines, world was their market
§ More wheat producd
○ Then Dust Bowl Happens
§ After war, drought, machines not in action, sitting and rusting
§ Land desolate
□ Children help working trying to survive
□ People leaving, cant survive
® Heading west
◊ Desporate for days work to survive as travel, chance to start over, to eat, medical care, homes again
○ Tragic chapter in american agriculture
○ Gov helping them for survival

• People objected to documentary
○ Pity farmers moving west, harder to justify Border Laws put into place to keep them out
○ Overproduction WWI caused farmland to be ruined
§ War caused this, people upset, think Hollywood communists
○ Indicates happen because fed gov trying to get families to move into great plains for farmlands but land unusable
§ Critical of previous federal gov 1920s Republican gov encouraging people to move further west onto unfarmable land
○ Overplowing, plows change to more technological electrified, technology caused dust bowl, made possible to farm all land
§ With horse plows cant farm that much
§ With technology plows plowed all so land ruined
○ Film portrayed all areas in same light, reality not everywhere desert dust conditions
• Federal government like enough to hire him to do again called The River, Mississipi

Issue fed gov begun to be involved in, affects small segement population that extends to affect americans in some way
Republican 1928 election. fixer. exemplicy new era of American capitalism. condemned gov regulation as an interference with economic opportunities of ordinary Americans, also insisted that self-interest should be subordinated to public service. considered himself progressive but preffered associational action- private agencies directed regulatory and welfare politices to government intervention in the economy. Great Depression- 1929 hoover's response- belt tightening, gov intervention to aid jobless would do little to spur economic recover and encourage americans to rely on gov charity to address misfortune. remained committed to associattional actions. put faith in efforts by local charity organizations to assis and put faith in voluntary steps by business to maintain employment and investment. voluntary action failed to stem Depression. signed laws creating Reconstruction Finance Corporation which loaned money to failing banks, railroad, and other business and Federal Home Loan Bank System which offered aid to home owners threatened with foreclosure. opposed offering direct reliief to unemployed thinking it would od them a disservice
• Herbert Hoover
○ Self-made business man
○ In charge of rations in WWI
○ Famous 1920s for being a fixer
§ Fundamental in WWI aid sent to Europe, get goods and money there to support people, rationing, raising voluntary money, aid, food suggestions
○ Seen as benevolent figure
○ 1927 member of Cabinet and sent to deal with Great Flood
§ Mississippi had historic flood
□ 100,000s acres flooded, thousands dies, biggest naitional disasters yet
□ People who don't live there don't hear about it much
□ Rural area, not interested in it, more exciting things happen- Babe Ruth, Linburgh. Trials and crimes follow, awareness of mobster activity, people not aware or care about flood
□ Big problem
® Coolidge President at first ignores but becomes clear he cant
◊ Sends Hoover to fix problem
◊ Starts to put into place federal structures to help people in midwest FEMA like structures
◊ One of first times federal gov coming to aid in national disaster, seen as locality maybe state issues
} Scope so big cant handle, america more interconnected
} Hoover if doesn't help agricultural returns will be lower, farm animals lower, people destitute- not good for american economy
- Receives praise for cleanup
○ President seen as someone who fixes big problems
○ Stock crash hope he will help fix it
○ Hoover believes government shouldn't be handing stuff out, aid should come from charitable organizations
§ Funneled money from charitable orgs for WWI and flood
§ Calls on charities to do, fed gov set up to help distribute, funnel funds, not provide funds
§ More people laid off as years go by, inflation increases, charitable organizations also affected by economy
□ By 1931 few charitable organizations have money to help
□ 25% unemployed, families relying on one income
§ Insists will be short term thing
§ Call great depression because sounds better than panic
§ 1933 over 5000 banks closed
§ Banking industry is basiclaly done for
§ republian
Democratic. believed regional economic development would promote economic growth, ease domestic and working lives of ordinary Americans, and keep control of key natural resources in public rather than private hnads.oversaw transformation of Democratic party into a colaition of farmers, industrial workers, reform-minded urban class, liberal intellectuals, northern African Americans, and white supremacist south, united by belief that the federal gov. must provide America with protection against dislocations caused by modern capitalism. active efforts ny national gov to modernize and regulate market economy and to uplift less fortunate members of society. New Deal elevated public guarantee of economic security to the forefront of American discussionsof freedom. 1930s decade of dramatic social upheaval. revitalized labor movement. economic security recognized as a political condition of personal freedom thanks to New Deal. right to comfortable living. gov on side of labor- legal right to form unions
○ Democrat
○ Intends to use fed gov to create jobs and facilitate economic progress
○ Noone anticipates how large new deal ends up being
○ 1934 economist writes book The Great Depression
§ Switch from temporary similar event to the biggest event in their time
§ Becomes momentous ocassion living through, never happened before
□ Changes way thinking
□ Maybe wont be recovery like before
○ Use federal gov to try to spark economic progress
§ Not everyone agrees
§ Republicans agree Hoover, leave alone and it will be alright
New Deal measures including Social Security Act, which offered aid to unemployed and aged and the Fair Labor Standards Act which established national minium wage reflected new understanding of freedom of economic security. some new deal public works initiatives looked to gov planned economic transformation as much as economic relief. gov for first time in business of selling electricity in competition with private companies. disastrous plight of american farmers so initiative called Agricultural ADjustment Act AAA authorized federal gov to try to raise farm prices by settting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers to plant less. succeeded in significantly raising farm prices and incomes but not all farmers benefited. encouraged eviction of sharecroppers and poor tenants. helped housing. gov systematicaly entered housing market. security of the home was fundamental right akin to security of livelihood and secuity of social insurance. Home Owners Loan Corporation and Federal Housing administration insured millions of long-term mortgages issued by private banks. gov built thousands of units of low rent housing. serieise of experiments some of which succeeded and some didnt. tranformed the role of the gov, constructed numerous public facilities and provided relief to millions of needy persons but ny 1934 still 20% unemployed. 1935 Supreme Court began to invalidate key NEw Deal laws including NRA, AAA
First New Deal- measures tranforming financial system, took US off gold standard making possible issuance of more money in hope of stimulatin business activity- measures rescued financial system and greatly increased gov.s power over it
Second New Deal- 1935 spurred by failiure of his initial policies to pull country out of Depression and growing popular clamor for greater economic equality launched Second New Deal. First focused on economic recovery. Emphasis of second was economic security- a guarantee that Americans would be protected against unemployment and poverty. gov should no longer try to plan business recovery but should try to redistribute the national income so as to sustain mass purchasing power in the consumer economy. series of measures atteacked problem of weak demand and economic inequality.. congress levied a highly publicized tax on large fortunes and corporate profits. created the Rural Electrification Agency to bring electric power to homes that lacke dit to enable more Americans to purchase household appliances. one of most successful programs. by 1950 90% of naiton's farms wired with electricity. federal gov tried to promote soil conservation and family farming. farmers received federal assistance in reducing soil loss in their fields. federal gov purchased significant amounts of marginal and eroded land and converted htese areas from farms into national grasslands and parks. it encouraged more enviornmentally conscioius agricultural tenchiques. lon run failed to arrest the trend toward larger farms and fewer farmers.
1938 end New Deal
largest violation of american civil liberties in the twentieth century. after Japan bombed pearl harbor and US went to war in pacific US Japanese rounded up and put into internment camps. violation of civil rights. California had long history of hostility toward Japanese. now inspired by exaggerated fears of japanese invasion of West Coast and pressured by whites who saw an opportunity to gain possession of Japanese American property, hte military persuaded FDR to issue Executive Order which ordered relocation of all persons of japanese descent from West coast. treatment of mainland japanese americans provided ammunition for japan's claim that its aggressions in asia were intended to defend right of non whites against colonial rule and racist us. subjected to a quasi military discipline in camps. internees did htier best to create atmosphere of home. internment revealed how easily war can undermine basic freedoms. were no court hearings, no due process, and no writs of habeas corpus. press supported policy almost unanimously. groups publicly committed to figting discimination either defended policy or remained silent. courts refused to intervene. held up legality of internment policy insisting order applying only to persons of Japanese descent was not based on race. the gov established a loyalty oath program expecting japanese americans to swear allegiance to gov that had imprisoned htem and enlisted htem in army. 1988 congress apologized for internment and provided compensation to each surviving victim.
• Dr. Spocks the Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care 1947
○ Revolutionizes child care
○ Over 750,000 copies 1947
○ Best seller almost continually for twenty years
○ Different from child care experts before, revolutionary
§ Tells parents, gives parents autonomy back, listen to your gut
□ Between 1880-1947 leading thoeries were children needed to be raised in scientific sterile safe way, scientific regimentation, strict schedules
§ Trust yourself, you know more than you think you do
§ Influenced by wathcing mother and by psychology
○ Interested in understanding how babies work
§ Big change, before 20th century children understood as little adults not different and had to train them to be little adults
□ Treated in different manner
§ Turn century start to change, child labor laws, more compulsory education, child clothing becomes different instead of dressing like adults, childrens clothing becomes fashionable
○ Investigates how babies and children work
§ Decides that children need to feel secure at home, feel love of parents to develop into dependent adult behaviors
□ Before regiment children to train them to act like adults
§ Idea childhood is stage in life and its okay for children to act like children
○ Book controversial when comes out
§ Publishes cheap in beginning, worried about sales
§ Afraid to raise price even when does well first year
□ 1920s advice posters, baby unhappy if fed at family table, if picked up when cry, allowed to go thirsty, not kept dry and clean, kept up late, bounced up and down, given pacifier
® Government concerned about germs and disease
◊ Don't have good antibiotics
◊ Things to do to protect from disease
◊ Flu going around pandemic
◊ WWII changes infant mortality, had been going down, after WWII drops lower than before, fewer diseases less issue, rise of vaccines and access to them, more likely to live out infancy , germs concern not as big concern to Spock
○ Assumes mothers have different types of luxuries, technology
§ Okay to spend time on children because have more time to spend
• To raise good americans now becomes more important goal in america, part of being good american
sung "Ballad for Americans" typical expression of Popular Front culture that celebrated the religious, racial and ethnic diversity of American society. black singer. spoke out against inequality and injustices in america. got in trouble for it with Un-American committee. condemned racism as incompatible with true Americanism.
• Paul Robeson
○ Most well respect African Americans, known for voice
○ Comments on race relations, politics, views himself as spokesman for black working class
○ Called in front of House Committee of Unamerican Activities- issue on passport
§ He thinks its ridiculous
□ Questions they ask- are you a communist
® Pleads the 5th a lot, says no but also said why should it matter
◊ It's a legal political party in America
□ Ask about specifics like know any communists, participate in activity, about speeches abroad
® Concerned hes been saying support for communists
§ Says called to meeting because active support of african americans and africans and freedom struggles and when abroad speaks out against injustice against blacks in US, not being tried if communist but for fighting for rights of his people
□ African americans associated with communism in america, riots associated, since 1880s labor unions associated with communism
□ Politicians Afraid of communist labor african americans and communism in wider world
§ Encouraging revolution in places where american politicians are concerned of communism happening
§ Pokes at ridiculousness of McCarthyism
§ Calls them the unpartiots and un-Americans
□ To be american is to be free and make free choices and fight for rights for people
○ Committee thinks he is un-american since going abroad and speaking ill of america, cant be american if speaking ill of america
§ Americans trying to fight and influence whole world for democracy and Robeson is against their actions
§ To be american is support idea of america and democracy despite reality

Idea in interest of idea of naiton gov. has given up some rights of people
US Supreme Court Decision 1954 that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared "separate but equal" unconstitutional.
Marshall launched frontal assault on segregation. brought NAACPs support to local cases that had arisen when black parents challenged unfair school policies. 1952 five cases were combined in single appeal that reached Supreme Court late in 1952. lawsuit became Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas. Marshall decided thatt time had come to attack not the unfair applications of separate but equal principle but doctrine itself. insisted segregatio nwas inherently unequal since it stigmatized one group of citizens as unfit to associate with others. argued that segregation did lifelong damage to black children undermining their self esteem. new chief justice Warren managed to create unanimity. 1954 decision that segregation in public education violated the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by 14th amendment. did not address segregation in institutions other than public schools or ban all racial classifications in the law. marked emergence of te warren court as an active agent of social change. inspired wave of optimism that discriminaton would soon disappear.
• Brown v. Board of Education
○ Kansas
○ Chosen not specifically southern challenge
§ Few places north or south schools not segregated
○ Compile 8 cases
§ Supreme court unanimous reject separate but equal for schools
□ Effects of case
® Short amount of time if not acceptable for schools then wont be acceptable anywhere
• Reaction to Brown v. Board
○ Emotional and charged
○ Means in north and south changing structures of society- never easy
○ Places before forbidden- bussing not enforced so if community black then schools segregated
○ Even after put into place, south refuses to follow new federal laws
○ Response varied
§ Practical level one group of women League of Women voters has to decide how to respond
§ Educate women how to be good public participants in voting, want to make best citizens possible
§ Southern leaders have to decide how going to react to desegregation- a lot of what they do go to school, educate on voting
§ Reflect complete fear and unclarity about what to do
§ President says will have great impact on nation, everyone's problem, essential leaders agree on role of league, integrity of league and promote principles it believes
§ Some don't want but decide segregation is wrong, first turn to churches to help them tell others its wrong