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Straited muscle

regular arrangement of actin and myosin

Smooth muscle

uninucleate, contracts slowley

Sarcoplsmic reticulum

Smooth ER in muscle cells


in a muscle fiber, contains aligned protein structures


functional unit of striated muscle


outer membrane of the skeletal muscle fiber

T tubules

invaginations of the sarcolemma

Terminal cisternae

Expanded portions of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Mitochondria and glycogen granules

found between myofibrils

Red fibers

high concentration of myoglobin and glycogen, fatigue resistant

White fibers

less mitochondria, myoglobin etc

Motor unit

motor neuron and muscle fibers that are innervated by it

Motor end plate

neuron and muscle fiber contact

Junctional folds

folded sarcolemma in motor end plate

Muscle spindles

receptors in muscle that sense degree of stretch of a muscle

Intrafusal fibers

fibers in a muscle spindle

nuclear bag

larger intrafusal fibers

nuclear chain

smaller intrafusal fibers

Smooth muscle

doesn't have striations, located in gi, repro, iris, etc


plasma membrane, has caveolae


small invaginations and vesicles on sarcolemma, release calcium ions

dense bodies

attachment sites for intermediate myosin filaments, dark stain in cytoplasm

Jap junctions

Between sm cells, allows ionic communication bt cells


The parenchyma of the liver, contains glycogen/lipid

tight, desmosomes, and gap

Types of juctions that hepatocytes have


Spaces in between hepatocytes, "of disse"

Kupffer cell

line liver sinusoids, has fixed macrophage, binds: hemoglobin, LDL, etc, antigen processing, RBC degradation

Ito cell

lipid droplets, stores vitamin A in liver


fenestrated,no pericytes, type 4 collagen


Visceral peritoneum, may contain smooth muscle

Reticular fibers

holds liver together

Classic Hepatic lobule

Endocrine fxn of liver, centered around a central vein, triad (artery, vein, bile) on side,


small blood vessels bt hepatocyte plates

Bile canalicula

drain into bile ductules then interlobular bile duct

Distributing veins/arteries

connect artery/vein into sinusoids

Portal lobule

exocrine fxn of liver, bile

Liver Acinus

3 zones, hepatic reginerations


Cells in cartilage

Collagen, Elastic

Fibers in cartilage


space that chondrocyte is in

Hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate

two major glycosaminoglycans in collagen, b/c of sulfate bonds stains basophilically


capsule-like sheath of dense irregular connective tissue (ABSENT IN FIBROCARTILAGE)

Centers of chondrification

sites of developing cartilage

Territorial matrix

matrix surrounding each lacunae

Interstital growth

add matrix from existing chondrocytes

Appositional growth

cartilage growth from outside


intervertebral disks, menisci of stifle joint, no perichondrium, has collagen bundles

Hyaline cartilage

articular surfaces (no perichondrium), nose, larynx etc, has collagen fibers

Elastic cartilage

pinna of ear, epiglottis, has elastic fibers


longitudinally laminar structures or curved sheets


structural unit of bone, circularing a centeral canal

Interstitial lamellae

irregular groups of lamellae

Circumferential lamellae

continuous bony lamellae extending around external and internal surfaces of bone shaft


live in lacunae in bone


involved in bone reabsorption

Volksmans canals

tunnel that osteons communicate to each other

Intramembranous bone formation

bone that forms directly from mesenchyme (skull)

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