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Carnauba Wax

Hardest and most useful wax. Found in brasilian tree

Lanolin Wax

From sheep wool.

Survanta and curosurf (phospolipids) is used to treat ?

respiratory distress syndrom (RDS)


phospo lipid only on cytosol side. goes to outside during apoptosis.


enzyme envolved with phosphatidylcholine

phosphatidyl inositol

used in cell signaling and metabolism. PIP in periphery of cell.


sphingosine + fatty acid
found in animal membranes
holds skin together
functions in apoptosis


has ceramide. lower concentrations than phospatidylcholine. Most abundant ceramide.

Ether glycerophospholipids

ether linkage at C1 of glycerol. PFA and plasmalogen. found in white matter.

ethanolamine plasmalogen

found in nervous system. not in plants, fungi or bacteria.

Glycolipids = ?

cerebrosides, globoside, ganglioside

cerebroside = ?

- 1 sugar + ceramide


- type of cerebrosdie
only found in neural tissue


type of cerebroside
found in other tissues besides neural


has 2 sugars instead of 1


oligosaccharide attached instead of monosaccharide. used in cell to cell signaling.


only found in mitochondria and bacteria
test for syphilis


brain lipids. sulfate esters of cerebrosides.


Lipid storage disease. passed on through x chromosomes. Most die 3-5 yo.

Tay-Sachs Disease

GM2 accumulation in brain.
Hexodsminidase deficiency

Fabry's disease

ceramide trihexoside in kidney
Alpha galactosidase deficiency

Krabbe's disease

galactocerebroside in white matter
globoid leukodystrophy
galactocerebrosidase deficiency

Gaucher's disease

glucocerebroside in the spleen and liver
lysosomal glucocerebrosidase deficiency
most common
erosion of bones

Imiglucerase (Cerezyme)

analogue of human β-glucocerebrosidase used to treat Gaucher's disease

Miglustat (Zavesca)

a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor. prevents build up of fatty acids in Gaucher's disease.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

accumulation of sulfogalactocerebroside in CNS
arylsulfatase A deficiency


nerves stain yellowish-brown with cresyl violet dye in metachromatic leukodystrophy

Generalized gangliosidosis

accumulation of ganglioside GM1
deficiency of GM1 ganglioside: b-galactosidase

Niemann-Pick disease

sphingomyelin accumulation in reticuloendothelial.
sphingomyelinase deficiency

Niemann-Pick Type A and B (I)

Missing acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)

Niemann-Pick Type C

body cannot properly break down cholesterol and other fats

Niemann-Pick Type D

problems with the movement of cholesterol between brain cells.

A antigens
B antigens
H antigens

Type A blood
Type B blood
Type O blood

Ganglioside Nomenclature

1. Gal-GalNAc...
2. GalNAc...
3. Gal-Glc...

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