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APUSH Period 6 Terms
Terms in this set (99)
Ulysses S. Grant
Civil War general and Republican nominee for president in 1868 whose campaign slogan was "Let there be peace". Served as president form 1868-1876. Had an extremely corrupt administration with several scandals.
editor of the New York Tribune and presidential nominee for the Liberal Republican party in 1872. He was supported by Democrats and denounced by regular Republicans.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican candidate in 1876, president for one term. Gained presidency through Compromise of 1877.
New York attorney who prosecuted Boss Tweed in court. Democratic nominee against Rutherford in 1876 presidential election
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic congressman who was an avid supporter of free silver.
nickname for period after Civil War through the turn of the century that refers to the success of the rich due to industrialization.
appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district.
party formed in 1892 made up of discontented farmers whose platform demanded inflation through coinage of silver and gold (16:1), graduated income tax, gvmt ownership of railroads/telegraph/telephone, direct election of senators, one-term limit of presidency, adoption of referendum, shorter workday, and immigration restriction. Nominated James Weaver for president.
device used by southern states to disenfranchise African Americans. It restricted voting to those whose grandfathers had voted before 1867.
response to idea that war bonds be redeemed in gold; poor midwestern delegates suggested they be redeemed in greenbacks to keep more money in circulation and keep interest rates lower.
The "Bloody Shirt"
tactic used by Republicans to whip up enthusiasm for Grant; revival of gory memories of the Civil War.
infamous group of unscrupulous business men under the direction of Burly "Boss" Tweed; they employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections.
scandal in 1872 where Union Pacific Railroaders formed a construction company and hired themselves at inflated prices to build a railroad line. They then paid off congressmen with shares of the company's stock to keep the lid on it. Newpaper exposé revealed the scandal went as far as the Vice President of the US.
group that robbed the Treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues, creating a huge scandal from 1874-1875. Grant's personal secretary was involved.
1878 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
faction of republicans who wanted to keep government the same, supported patronage.
(1883) law that reformed the patronage system; created civil service and banned requirement of government workers to support political campaigns.
republicans who wanted to change the Republican party; supported their Democratic candidate Grover Cleavland in election of 1884 instead of own party candidate James Blaine.
White Democrats who used fraud and intimidation to resume political power in the South.
Plessy v Ferguson
1896 court case that validated the South's segreationalist social order, ruling "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection" clause of the 14th Amendment.
systematic state-level legal codes of segregation.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) law that banned Chinese from entering the US.
Republican congress of 1890. Gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890. First billion dollar budget.
ex-Governor of California who was one of the Big Four financial backers of the Central Pacific Railroad.
American businessman who controlled the New York Central railroad; made a fortune in the railroad business. Helped popularize steel rail, which was safer and more economical.
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone in 1876. Led to network of communication throughout the US.
invented the phonograph, mimeograph, dictaphone, and moving picture. Perfected the lightbulb in 1879, transforming human habit.
"King of Steel", United States Steel Corporation.
John D. Rockefeller
"Oil Baron", Standard Oil.
J. Pierpont Morgan
"The Banker's Banker".
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation), equal pay for equal work, an 8hr work day and to end child labor.
creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines.
technique used by railroads where promoters grossly inflated their claims about a given line's assists and profitability and sold stocks and bonds in excess to the railroad's actual value.
technique used by Carnegie where he combined into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing.
technique used by Rockefeller to lower prices for Standard Oil in order to get it on a new market.
companies in separate states, but belonging to one corporation.
practice introduced by J.P. Morgan that had executives or directors from one company serve on the Board of Directors of another company; eliminated banking competition.
government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (especially under the United States antitrust laws)
a town or city in which most or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.
those who supported the idea of no government, things left up to communities.
Union Pacific Railroad
railroad that started in Omaha and connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah.
Central Pacific Railroad
railroad that started in Sacramento and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah. It hired Chinese immigrants.
nicknamed Patrons of Husbandry, an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies.
Gospel of Wealth
idea from Carnegie that states that the wealthy have to use their money for charitable reasons.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
(1890) a law that tried to regulate trusts. It favored businesses rather than workers and was originally used to break up labor unions.
nickname for a technologically advanced and industrialized South that many in the South coveted, but didn't end up really happening.
Interstate Commerce Act
law that prohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly. It also forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul than for a long one over the same line. It also set up the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer and enforce the new legislation.
strike in Chicago in favor of 5 hour days where a bomb was thrown into a crowd, killing 1 person. It caused the end of the Knights of Labor.
American Federation of Labor
founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom. Also founded the Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
helped persuade Illinois to prohibit child labor and limit the number of hours women worked; helped found the National Child Labor Committee.
Booker T. Washington
prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was founder of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. Was criticized for "accomodating" segregation. Progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910. He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights.
popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work.
author who wrote several books that caught the spirit of the Gilded Age. His works combined real depth with a comic genius that exposed the pretentiousness and meanness of human beings. Coined the nickname "Gilded Age".
Carrie Chapman Catt
suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
great American poet whose poems were not discovered until her death in 1886.
young California writer and adventurer who portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization in his novels.
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At these places, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements.
movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
a policy of favoring native-born Americans over immigrants
according to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
colleges and universities created from allocations of pubic land through the Morrell Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1887. These grants helped fuel the boom in higher education in the late nineteenth century, and many of the today's public universities derive from these grants.
journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
books made from cheap paper covers, introduced in mid 1800s. Depicted paint-daubed Indians and quick-triggered gunmen.
Macy's/ Marshall Field's
department stores that attracted urban middle class shoppers and provided urban working class jobs, many of them for women. Macy's in New York, Marshall fields in Chicago; showed consumerism and class divisions.
settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 1889 designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
The Origin of Species
(1859) Charles Darwin's book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce.
American Protective Association
nativist group created in 1887 that lobbied for exclusion of immigrants.
welfare organization that came to the US from England in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
founded by W.E.B. Du Bois, it emerged out of the Niagara Movement in 1909 in order to help create more social and economic opportunities for blacks. It worked for equal rights for all Americans, but it failed to achieve lasting civil rights legislation during the early 1990s.
passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
women's union called for the national prohibition of alcohol. Led by Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation
leader of the Sioux Indians; killed during Battle of Wounded Knee in 1890.
George A. Custer
discovered gold in Black Hills of South Dakota, was a former general of the Civil War. He was nicknamed the "boy general." During the Sioux War of 1876-1877 he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn river in Montana and was completely wiped out.
leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
leader of the Apache Indians who was the last to resist the US government.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
colorful leader of the farm movement in Kansas (as well as one of the state's first female lawyers) who was a fiery public speaker on behalf of various causes such as Irish nationalism, temperance, women's suffrage and free silver.
Frederick Jackson Turner
author of the "Frontier Thesis" that claimed that the Western Frontier was the defining feature of the US.
Eugene V. Debs
leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians were led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer's forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.
..., Indian tribe led by Chief Joseph; ordered onto a reservation in Idaho in 1877, they fled instead; after giving up they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma.
Native American-Indian tribe; group from Arizona and New Mexico led by Geronimo were difficult to control; chased into Mexico by Federal troops; they became successful farmers raising stock in Oklahoma.
a religious ritual that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. It led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887.
Battle of Wounded Knee
(1890) final armed conflict between US & natives.
(1887) law that took away communal ownership of land; it divided land up in reservations and distributed them to families, encouraging them to farm.
Little Big Horn
the last major battle between the Union and the Native Americans took place. The Sioux Indians, led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, massacred the U.S. 7th Cavalry led by General Custer. Also known as Custer's Last Stand.
nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s.
(1862) law that provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Oklahoma's nickname because about 500.000 people illegal entered that state before it became an offical state in 1907.
theory that people from the city could always fall back on the frontier if things didn't work out in the city or as a way to relieve pressure of increasing population.
Colored Farmers National Alliance
more than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. The history of racial division in the South made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same organization.
(1894) strike in Chicago led by Eugene Debs for railroad workers that spread nationwide.
Cross of Gold Speech
an impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold. He supported free silver.
backers of the gold standard in both Democratic & Republican parties.
"16 to 1"
the ratio of silver to gold promoted by Bryan's Democratic political platform in 1896.
Gold Standard Act
signed by McKinley in 1900, this law stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH PERIOD 4 1800-1848
APUSH PERIOD 7: 1890-1945
APUSH Period 9
APUSH Period 8 1945- 1980
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