1. Community Social Action: organizing and informing those adversely affected (consciousness raising), challenge existing sociopolitical and economic structures, change power distribution. Can be abrasive.
2. Community Development: develop community capacities for self-help, mutual support, consensus, problem solving and identification of common interests. Brings issues to attention of political decision makers.
3. Social Planning: assessment of community needs, problems, goals, priorities and strategies to mobilize resources, design, implement, and evaluate services and programs
4. Community Organization: collaboration of separate community and welfare agencies to promote joint initiatives, with or without participation of stakeholders
5. Service Extension: making agency operations, services relevant and accessible. Community presence.
Stage 1: Development of a felt need and desire for change. In community social action or community development: assessment itself is impetus for change. In social planning: those who completed assessment and diagnoses can report to community to validate findings and discuss priorities.
Stage 2: Development of change relationship between agent and client system. Planning committee: include community members, stakeholders, champions, develop mandates, address priority concerns, set meetings, reporting and communication measures
Stage 3: Clarification, diagnosis of client system problem, need, or objectives. Confirmation of community diagnoses. Various methods: mail out questionnaires, interviews, key informant interviews...
Stage 4: Examination of Alternative Routes and tentative goals and intention of actions. Examine results, suggestions for implementation, literature review, program evaluations, and preferred approach. Implementation strategies will be informed by available resources, likelihood of success, time and motivation of community