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an organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition.
does not rely on other living organisms, take in organic substances, on bottom of food chain
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds
raw materials needed to make complex molecules and to increase cellular organization during growth
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, BUT IT CAN CHANGE FORM; Organisms cannot create their own energy, but must obtain it from an outside source
Second Law of Thermodynamics
systems tend to change in a way that increases the disorder of the system plus its surroundings
specialized proteins that lower the activation energy required to make a reaction proceed. Enzymes are not consumed; made up of single chain amino acids, the order of the amino acids determines the function of the proteins.
Chemicals that lower activation energy Enzymes are catalysts, but not all catalysts are enzymes.
the portion (small area of the tertiary structure) of the enzyme that attaches to the substrate through weak chemical bonds
(entropy is going up) "breaking down reactions" ; reactions in cells release the free energy that is stored in the structure of complex molecules
energy currency of the cells; has 3 phosphate groups; continually synthesized and broken down in cells
the breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller ones; increases surface area of food, making the chemical part of digestion easier
the breakdown of complex food molecules into simpler ones. Enzymes lower activation energy
digestion that takes place outside the cells (most animals including humans)
digestion that takes place inside of the cells or inside of one celled organisms (in plants that digest food it makes itself)
wavelike contradictions of the muscles of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine that move food though the digestive tract
enzyme in saliva that begins digestion of polysaccharides into shorter polysaccharides
Organisms that use organic compounds as their only source of energy for synthesizing other organic compounds
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Organisms that can use the products of photosynthesis for synthesizing their organic compounds
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