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triver's parental investment hypothesis

sex that invests more effort& more resources in offspring is the limiting resource for the reproduction of the less investing sex-object of competition

parallel testing

more than 1 observer collects data at same time


inventory of behaviors of a species with the behaviors organized into categories

focal animal sampling

occurrences of actions of 1 individual are recorded during a predetermined sample period

optimal forager

one that forages in way that maximizes its net energy gain


newly invented behaviors

ratchet effect hypothesis

cumulative cultural change, beneficial modifications to existing habits can accumulate over time


copy motor patterns without adopting or understanding goal/intention


adopt goal/intention without copying precise motor pattern

true imitation

adopt goal/intention and copy precise motor pattern

life history approach

model of how individuals allocate resources (energy&effort) over lifetimes to maximize reproductive success


hormones from adrenal glands that helps shape the brain


deterioration of body function as we grow older

antagonistic pleiotropy

genes that are beneficial early in life can have adverse affect later in life

grandmother hypothesis

menopause evolved to switch women from investing in offspring production to investing in their grandchildren

reproductive ecology

study of reproductive functioning as an interaction b/w an organism and it's environment


capacity to bear offspring


monthly probability of conception


successful reproduction b/c you had children

exocrine glands

secrete substances into ducts that empty into body cavities or onto surfaces

endocrine glands

secrete products called hormones that enter bloodstream then are carried to other regions of the body to exert their effects

adolescent subfecundity

55-85% menstrual cycles during first 2 years are anovulatory

energy balance

net difference b/w energy intake and energy expenditure


science of human growth and development

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