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triver's parental investment hypothesis
sex that invests more effort& more resources in offspring is the limiting resource for the reproduction of the less investing sex-object of competition
focal animal sampling
occurrences of actions of 1 individual are recorded during a predetermined sample period
ratchet effect hypothesis
cumulative cultural change, beneficial modifications to existing habits can accumulate over time
life history approach
model of how individuals allocate resources (energy&effort) over lifetimes to maximize reproductive success
genes that are beneficial early in life can have adverse affect later in life
menopause evolved to switch women from investing in offspring production to investing in their grandchildren
study of reproductive functioning as an interaction b/w an organism and it's environment
secrete products called hormones that enter bloodstream then are carried to other regions of the body to exert their effects
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