History of Rock Chapter 6


Terms in this set (...)

Following WWII English youth had absorbed whatever American music they could get their hands on
Trad Jazz
Traditional New Orleans Jazz
An English adaption of traditional American jug band music
British music fans turned to other indigenous American music styles, most notably the blues and R&B
Three radio stations to choose from, all of which were run by the government-sponsored British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
The closest any of these came to programming pop was the BBC Light, which played light opera, musical comedy, and light orchestral music for dancing
Only four major labels, the largest of which were EMI and Decca; there were few independent labels
Pirate radio stations
Illegal stations began broadcasting from ships, offshore the British coast--the so called pirate radio stations; The BBC finally relented to the demands of the youth market when their own pop station, Radio One went on the air on September 30, 1967
The Beatles
Dramatic effect on the way music was composed, performed, and consumed; there was optimism
The Beatles impact on rock
1. The Beatles are the most popular rock group in history, with worldwide sales of all albums, singles, music videos, and downloads estimated at 600 million
2. More than anyone or any group, the Beatles made rock the dominant pop music format that transcended age and demographic. It was no longer music just for teens
3. The Beatles changed the way music was recorded and presented; they constantly pushed the envelope with their use of studio technology; they pioneered the basic format for contemporary music videos; they were innovative in their music packaging
Beatles were influential to music and culture
The Beatles greatest influence came from producer George Martin
Beatles: two powerful yet very different musical forces coming together; writing songs together; competitive nature of their friendship
The Early Years of the Beatles
Working-class ethic and depressed economy; sponge for pop culture from America; English counterpart of the cat was born: the Teddy boy; John Lennon, in 1956, he was so completely taken with Elvis that he put together his own group called the Quarry Men; Paul McCartney first heard the group play on July 6, 1957--he ended up auditioning for them; Even though he was only 14 years old at the time, George could play solos, while John and Paul could only strum chords; The drummer was Lennon's friend Pete Best, who stayed with group until 1962
The Audition (Beatles)
By 1960, the group had changed its name to the Beatles; they played the first of a string of engagements over a two year period in the raunchy clubs in the Reeperbahn section Hamburg, Germany; In early 1961, they first appeared at Liverpool's Cavern Club; In late 1961, Brian Epstein, manager of nearby NEMS record store became the Beatles manager; more upscale matching mohair suits with white shirts, thin ties, and mop top haircuts; Epstein searched for a record contract for the group; He managed to get his foot in the door at EMI's small Parlophone subsidiary; his contact was George Martin; Beatles went into the London office building on Abbey Road where the EMI studio
Many of the songs were written by John and Paul "eyeball to eyeball"; however even in the early days, the two were also writing apart from each other; second album, With the Beatles
Coming to America
The group's first appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show on February 9th, 16th, and 23rd were viewed by approximately 73 million people each; by the end of March (1964) the Beatles held the op five records on America; July 10, 1964, third album--A Hard Days Night; A Hard Days Night was a tie-in to the pioneering feature film of the same name; fourth album, Beatles for Sale, was released on December 4th, 1964
Meeting Bob Dylan
Dylan's influence was immense and immediate; the group also began to expand into more musically diverse style; it was also a tie in to the group's second movie
Coming of Age
Rubber Soul is often considered the Beatles' "coming of age" album; on August 5, 1966, the Beatles released Revolver, an album that many calls their finest work; it is also considered to be the first album of the psychedelic era because of its use of exotic instruments, studio effects, and several drug allusions
"Tomorrow Never Knows" (John Lennon/Paul McCartney)-The Beatles
Abbey Road Studios, London
Sgt. Pepper's
The Beatles announced their decision to discontinue touring; their last concert was at Candlestick Park in San Francisco on August 30, 1966; the announcement fueled rumors that the Beatles were about to break up; on February 17, 1967, the band released "Penny Lane" and "Strawberry Fields Forever" as two A sides on one single; both songs are remembrances of real places in Liverpool from McCartney and Lennon's childhood; Those two songs were originally supposed to be included on the groups next album, the highly anticipated Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band; the album took five months and 700 hours to record and an unheard cost of $100,000; Sgt. Pepper's had the most famous music album cover in history, showing celebrities and famous people gathered around the Beatles in costume; it is the first album to print song lyrics on the inside cover; stunning use of studio technology, used with great skill and effect throughout
"Penny Lane" (John Lennon/Paul McCartney)-The Beatles
Recorded December 1996-January 1967 at Abbey Road Studios, London, released February 1967
All You Need Is Love
The Beatles took part in the first worldwide satellite TV broadcast on the program Our World, performing Lennon's, "All You Need Is Love"; manager Brian Epstein died from an accidental drug overdose; February 1968, the band, along with actress Mia Farrow and her sister Prudence, the singer Donovan, Mick Jagger, the Beach Boys' Mike Love, and assorted girlfriends all went to the ashram of guru Maharishi Yogi in Rishikesh, India, to learn about Transcendental Mediation; Magical Mystery Tour, a six-song double EP was released on December 8, 1967, accompanying the film of the same name
Impending Doom
The Beatles (aka The White Album) was released on November 22, 1968; John's new lover Yoko Ono was a constant presence; a remarkable double album with thirty songs that cover a wide range of styles; year 1969 saw the release of Yellow Submarine; this album contains orchestral scorings by George Martin from the accompanying movie
The End
Let It Be was originally planned as a no overdubs; back to live concept to be called Get Back; rooftop of Apple's Savile Row offices on January 30, 1969; with tempers flaring over, worsening management situation, task of finishing the project was just too much for the band; Phil Spector was brought in to re-produce the entire album; the last album recorded by the Beatles was Abbey Road; George Martin was persuaded to return as producer; the studio had installed a new eight-track recorder for the band to use for the first time; Abbey Road is the 16-minute, eight-song medley that closes side B
The Rolling Stones: Image
Began calling themselves "The World's Greatest Rock and Roll Band"; forced early on to portray themselves as dangerous and surly, creating a sort of "anti-Beatles" image; been much more influential and widely imitated; their on-stage image was the most boldly sexual and threatening of their time
The Early Years
Mick Jagger and Keith Richards both grew up in London and briefly went to the Dartford Wentworth Primary School together; the two saw each other again on a commuter train in 1961; Brian Jones--also an aspiring blues guitarist; Andrew Loog Oldham heard the Stones at the Crawdaddy Club; taking on the group as clients; Decca Records signed the group
Breaking Through
Stones went on their first American tour in June 1964; Oldham booked a recording session at Chicago's Chess Studio; by the end of 1964 the Stones were finally beginning to break through in the United States; they released their first LP, England's Newest Hit Makers/The Rolling Stones
Rock and Roll's Bad Boys
Mid 1966 the Stones released the pivotal Aftermath; set by the Indian raga-esque opening track "Paint it Black" (#1) is dark and sneering, helping to cement the Stones' reputation as rock and roll's bad boys; In January 1967 they appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show with the intention of performing their risque (for the time), "Let's Spend The Night Together"; February 12 both Richards and Jagger were arrested after police raided a party at Richard's home--Richards for allowing drugs on his property, Jagger for possession of amphetamines; Brian Jones was arrested at his London flat for possession of cocaine, Methedrine, and marijuana; Because of his eventual conviction, touring abroad became impossible; Stones would not perform in the US again until late 1969; Jones finally left the group in June 1969; Less than one later, he was found dead in his swimming pool
"Sympathy For The Devil" (Mick Jagger/Keith Richards)--The Rolling Stones
Recorded at Olympic Studios, London
Creative, Triumph, Tragedy
Critically panned release of the psychedelic Their Satanic Majesties Request; Stones hired producer Jimmy Miller; Beggars Banquet--released in December; release of Let it Bleed; plans were made to stage a free "thank you America" concert in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Altamont Speedway Free Festival held on December 6, 1969; Hell's Angels were hired to provide security (and paid in beer); the overflow crowd was getting unruly and the situation was rapidly becoming dangerous; the Hell's Angels violently stabbed to death audience member Meredith Hunter directly in front of the stage; Altamont became a metaphor of sorts for the end of the peace and love 1960s; April 1971, the Stones released Sticky Fingers; #1 hit "Brown Sugar"; what drew perhaps the most attention to the album was the cover; contained a real zipper within a photo of a man's jeans; album also introduced for the first time the famous tongue and lips logo on the inner sleeve; May 1972, the fourth Jimmy Miller produced album Exile on Main Street was released
The Who: The Early Years
They were the prototype of the "power trio"; were inspirational to several later rock genres, including punk, heavy metal, and art rock; first rock band to incorporate synthesizers; they brought stage violence and drama to rock; exceptional musicianship of the four group members; produced the first rock opera Tommy; 1962, the Detours; after discovering that another band already was named the Detours, they changed their name to the Who
From Mods to Maximum R&B
Repackaged them with the look of London's mods; mods, a youth cult that burst onto the London scene in early 1964, wore snappy clothes, short hair, rode scooters, and consumed massive amounts of amphetamines that allowed them to dance continuously at all-night raves; changed the name of the band to the High Numbers; the band split with Meaden and teamed up with Kit Lambert and Chris Stamp; first thing Lambert and Stamp did was to change the name back to the Who; introduced a new motto--Maximum R&B; Townshend broke the neck of his guitar when it accidentally hit the club's low ceiling; the notoriety from these acts of stage violence helped secure a contract with Decca Records; release of "I Can't Explain"; late 1965 the group's first album (The Who Sings) My Generation was released; "My Generation" rising to #2 in the UK
December 1966 the second album A Quick One; the Who embarked on a tour of America in the summer of 1967; stunning performance at the Monterey Pop Festival; "I Can See for Miles" which was #9
"Won't Get Fooled Again" (Pete Townshend)-The Who
Recorded at Rolling Stones Mobile Studio--Stargroves, Berkshire, England, and Olympic Studios, London
In 1968, Pete Townshend became a follower of the Indian guru Meher Baba, stopped taking drugs, and began to reflect upon ways in which to define his new spirituality through music; Tommy became a critically acclaimed hit and put the Who at the front of the creative vanguard in rock; Tommy became a film in 1975 and a Broadway musical in 1993; August 1969 the band appeared at Woodstock; 1970 Live at Leeds was released; an album and science fiction film entitled Lifehouse; 1971 LP Who's Next
Final Triumph, Tragedy
1973, Quadrophenia charted at #2; September 7, 1978, Keith Moon died of an overdose of a sedative he had been taking to treat alcoholic seizures; John Entwistle died June of 2002
Other British Invasion Bands: The Mersey Beat Groups
The style of these bands--upbeat and joyous, with a relentless drive--became known as Mersey Beat, or simply beat; Gerry and the Pacemakers, Herman's Hermits, the Hollies, and the Dick Clark Five
"Bus Stop" (Graham Gouldman)--The Hollies
Released on Parlophone
The Blues-Oriented Groups
Groups with a rougher, blues orientation started emerging from Britain; most prominent and influential were the Kinks, the Yardbirds, and the Animals
"House of the Rising Sun" (Traditional)--the Animals
Recorded in London, release on MGM