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AP Statistics Exam Review

Terms in this set (114)

Bias is defined as a tendency to favor certain members of a population. The following are the main types of bias:

Household bias- only one member of a households responds, so large households are underrepresented.

Nonresponse bias- people don't respond to surveys or are too difficult to contact, thus creating a source of bias.

Quota sampling bias- interviewers are at liberty to pick people (ie. a specific percentage Catholic, a specific percentage African-American, etc.).

Response bias- People may lie/be untruthful when responding, especially when they're not anonymous if their views are unsavory.

Selection bias- for example a newspaper interviewed just people with cars and telephones in a presidential election and predicted a landslide victory for the wrong person due to the fact that the people owning cars and telephones were wealthy and tended to vote Republican.

Size bias- For instance if you have a student pick a coin out of a bag to estimate the monetary value, throw a dart at a map, etc. This benefits large states, large coins, etc.

Undercoverage bias- Inadequate representation- for instance there were phone surveys to landlines which left out people who only had cell phones. Another instance of this is convenience samples, like interviews at shopping malls which just target easy to reach people.

Voluntary response bias- samples where individuals can volunteer or call in often benefit people who have strong opinons.

Wording bias- if leading questions are used, then they may lead to biased answers.