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Upper Respiratory Track

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alveolus
terminal element of the respiratory tract where gas exchange occurs
bronchus
one or two subdivision of the trachea
bronchiole
increasingly smaller subdivision of the bronchi
cilium (cilia)
hairlike mobile projection from the surface of a cell
expiration
breathe out
inspiration
breathe in
olfaction
sense of smell
oxygen
the gas essential for life
pharyx
tube from the back of the nose to the larynx
pulmon
lung
rale
crackle heard through a stethoscope when air bubbles through liquid in the lungs
respiration
process of breathing
sputum
matter coughes up and spat out by individuals with respiratory illness
trachea
air tube from the larynx to the bronchii
coryza (rhinitis)
accute inflammation of the mucus membrane of the nose
decongestant
agent the reduces the swelling and fluid in the nose and sinuses
epistaxis
nosebleed
naris; nares; nasal
nostril
palate
roof of the mouth, floor of the nose
paranasal
adjacent to the nose
polyp
any mass of tissue that projects outward
septum
thin wall separating two cavities or tissue masses
sinus
cavity or hollow space in a bone or other tissue
itis
inflammation
adenoid
single mass of lymphoid tissue in the midline at the back of the throat
apnea
absence of spontaneous respiration
hypoxemia
low oxygen level in arterial blood
hypoxia
deficient in oxygen
oropharynx
region at the back of the mouth between the soft palate and the tip of the epiglottis
polysomnography
test to monitor brain waves, muscle tension, eye movement and oxygen levels in the blood as the patient sleeps
tonsil
mass of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat at the back of the tongue
croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)
infection of the upper airways in children characterized by a barking sound
epiglottis
leaf shaped plate of cartilage that shuts off the larynx during swallowing
intubation
insertion of a tube into the trachea
larynx
organ of sound production
papilla
any small projection
stridor
high pitched noise made when there is a respiratory obstruction in the larynx or trachea
vocal
pertaining to the voice
diaphragm
muscular sheet separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
fissure
deep furrow or cleft
lobe
subdivision of an organ
mediastinum
area between the lungs containing the heart, aorta, venae cavae, esophagus, and the trachea
pleura
membrane covering the lung
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
cyanosis
blue discoloration of the skin, lips and nail beds due to low levels of oxygen in the blood
dyspnea
difficult breathing
eupnea
normal breathing
exhale
breathe out
expectorate
cough up and spit out mucus from the respiratory tract
hemoptysis
bloody sputum
hyperpnea
deeper and more rapid breathing than normal
asthma
difficulty breathing due to narrowed or obstructed aiways
auscultation
diagnostic method of listening to body sounds with a stethoscope
bulla
bubble-like dilated structure
cystic fibrosis
excessive viscid mucus obstruct passages including bronchi
emphysema
dilation of the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
hypercapnia
abnormal increase of carbon dioxide in the arterial bloodstream
capn
carbon dioxide
rhonchus
wheezing sound heard on auscultation of the lungs. made by air passing through a constricted lumen
viscosity
resistance of fluid to flow
adenocarcinoma
a cancer arising from glandular epithelial cells
anthracosis
lung disease cause by the inhalation of coal dust
anthrac
coal
anthrax
a severe malignant infectious disease (carbuncle)
atelectasis
collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants)
bronchogenic
arising from a bronchus
empyema
a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
hemothorax
blood in the pleural cavity
pnuemoconiosis
fibrotic lung disease caused by inhalation of different dusts
pneumonia
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
sarcoidosis
a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
silicosis
a lung disease caused by inhaling particles of silica or quartz or slate
thoracentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space
tuberculosis
infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
endotracheal
pertaining to within the trachea
mediastinoscopy
endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
spirometer
a measuring instrument for measuring the vital capacity of the lungs
thoracotomy
surgical incision into the chest wall
tomography
radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section, or slice, of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
cannula
a small flexible tube inserted into a body cavity for draining off fluid or introducing medication
immunization
the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)
mucolytic
Agent capable of dissolving or liquefying mucus
nebulizer
device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
pneumonectomy
removal of a lung
resection
surgical removal of part of a structure or organ
tracheostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
ventilation
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation