260 terms

chapter 7 sociology


Terms in this set (...)

Social psychology is the scientific study of
how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Contemporary social psychology emphasizes the
power of the situation, power of the person,
and applicability of social psychological principles
Social psychology is to _____________ as sociology is to ________________.
individuals; groups
Evolutionary psychologists argue that the forces of natural selection predispose us
to particular actions and reactions when dating and mating.
Social neuroscientists seek to understand
the neurobiology that underlies social behavior.
Personality psychologists are more interested in _______________, while social psychologists more likely focus on _____________________.
individual differences; our common humanity
Values can subtly influence science by guiding
A. scientists' assumptions and preconceptions.
B. the labels scientists use for their concepts.
C. scientists' thoughts about what ought to be.
Common assumptions often go unchallenged among a group of scholars who share the same
. culture.
Which of the following psychological terms reflects a disguised value judgment?
B. mentally ill
C. self-actualized
"The way things are is the way they ought to be." This statement reflects the
naturalistic fallacy.
Two contradictory criticisms faced by social psychology are that its findings are obvious and that
its findings could be used to manipulate people.
Amy reads a research article and feels like it didn't tell her anything she didn't already know. However, when asked to guess the results of another experiment before reading it, she cannot. Amy's experience illustrates the
hindsight bias.
When researcher Karl Teigen gave students the actual proverb "fear is stronger than love," most rated it as true. When he gave others the reverse form, "love is stronger than fear,"
most rated it as true.
An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events is called
a theory.
A research hypothesis is a
testable prediction.
When theories are discarded, it is usually because they
have been displaced by newer, better theories.
A researcher is interested in learning whether young people whose fathers are absent from the home are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior. She compares the arrest rates of boys whose fathers are absent with those of boys whose fathers are present in the home. This is an example of
correlational study.
The great strength of correlational survey research is that is
studies factors in real-world settings that cannot be manipulated in the laboratory.
The great disadvantage of correlational research is that
it does not specify cause and effect.
In conducting your research, you make sure that every person in the population has an equal chance of participating in your survey. This procedure is known as
random sampling.
In 1936, the news magazine, Literary Digest, collected the opinions of over two million Americans regarding the presidential election. The results suggested that Alf Landon would win in a landslide over Franklin D. Roosevelt. Weeks later, FDR won in a landslide. This survey was plagued by
sampling bias.
Opinion polls and surveys
describe public opinion at the moment they are taken.
The answers respondents give to surveys may be influenced by biases from which of the following sources?
A. the order in which questions are asked.
B. the wording of the questions themselves.
C. the response options.
Which research method have social psychologists used in about three-fourths of their studies?
An experimenter exposes participants to different temperature levels to determine its effect on aggression. Temperature is the
independent variable.
In a psychological experiment, the factor being measured is called the __________ variable.
Manipulating one or two factors while holding others constant is the essence of
experimental control.
When the laboratory experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations, the experiment is said to be high in
mundane realism.
When the laboratory experiment deeply absorbs and involves participants, the experiment has
experimental realism.
American Psychological Association ethical principles dictate that potential research participants should be told enough about the experiment to
be able to give their informed consent.
In comparison to the sociologist, the social psychologist
is more likely to study individuals than groups.
To determine whether changing one variable (like education) will produce changes in another (like income), we need to conduct __________________ research.
According to the text, ___________________ tends to make people overconfident about the validity of their judgments and predictions.
the hindsight bias.
A research psychologist manipulates the level of fear in human participants in the laboratory and then examines what effect the different levels of fear have on the participants' reaction times. In this study, reaction time is the __________variable.
Illustrate the power of the situation using an example from your own life (e.g., describe a time when others failed to recognize you because the situation was different from usual, or describe a time when a given situation influenced you to act contrary to your beliefs).
One time I had a history class where I was the only girl and so when discussing women's suffrage I feel like my comments were maybe toned down on the feminism because I had no one else in the class who understood the role of women and at times our apparent inferiority in society.
What are demand characteristics and how might they threaten the validity of laboratory research findings?
Demand characteristics are things that participants in experiment observe that they think are clues as to how they are supposed to act and what the purpose of the experiment is. This threatens the validity of the experiment because it changes how the participants might act in according to what they think the experimenter expects of them. This creates inaccurate results.
Debate the pros and cons of deception in social psychological experimentation.
Pros: -more accurate results -more control over the experiment -can help create more valid and reliable results Cons: -possible psychological harm to the participant because of the false information they are possibly fed during the experiment -can create demand characteristics
Japanese are more likely than Americans to complete the sentence "I am . . ." with their
group identities.
Books and movies that celebrate those who do their social duty, even if it means personal sacrifice, are more likely to be found in
collectivist cultures.
People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are likely to be more
persistent and less anxious.
"Sometimes I feel that I can't do anything about the direction my life is taking." This statement reflects
an external locus of control.
Hospital patients trained to believe in their ability to control stress tend to
require fewer pain relievers and sedatives.
Prisoners given some control over their environments—being able to move chairs, control TV sets, and switch the lights—
commit less vandalism.
Jenny failed her last chemistry test. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jenny's part?
"I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing."
The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and undesirable behaviors is known as the
false consensus effect.
What is the "curse of knowledge?"
. the fact that once you know something, it is hard to imagine what it's like not to know
People are most likely to resort to self-handicapping when
they fear failure.
People who score high on a scale of _____________ tend to act like social chameleons: they adjust their behavior in response to external situations.
The theory of how people explain others' behavior is known as _________theory.
We are less likely to commit the fundamental attribution error when explaining _______________ behavior.
our own
The fundamental attribution error is reduced when
the actor and observer switch perspectives with each other.
Another term for the fundamental attribution error that many social psychologists prefer is
correspondence bias.
Following presidential debates, individuals typically
become even more supportive of their candidate than before the debate.
One remedy for the belief perseverance phenomenon is to
explain why an opposite belief might be true.
While waiting to cross the street you witness a man running a red light—causing a three-car accident. Just after it happens, the man who ran the stoplight gets out of the car to talk to you. He tells you that the light was yellow. Later you tell police that you remembered the light being yellow, not red, when the man went through the intersection. This scenario illustrates
the misinformation effect.
One reason people are overconfident is that they are not inclined to seek out information
that might disprove what they believe.
The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to play chess and read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver most clearly illustrates the use of
the representativeness heuristic.
The incorrect belief that the letter "k" appears more often as the first letter of a word than as the third letter can be understood in terms of
the availability heuristic.
When baseball's rookie-of-the-year has a more ordinary second year we shouldn't be surprised. This fact is easily explained by
regression toward the average.
Research has indicated that __________________ can be self-fulfilling.
teachers' expectations of students
B. students' expectations of teachers
C. experimenters' expectations of participants
Our attitudes predict our actions when
other influences on our actions are minimized.
B. the attitude involved is specifically about the action.
C. we are conscious of our attitudes as we act.
Which of the following refers to a set of examples or research investigations that illustrate the power of self-persuasion—of attitudes following behavior?
role playing
B. the foot-in-the-door principle
C. interracial desegregation
The results of Zimbardo's Stanford prison simulation indicated that
playing the roles of prisoners and guards can harden and embitter ordinary people.
According to the foot-in-the-door technique, if you get someone to agree to a small request, he or she will.
later comply with a larger request.
You agree to buy a new computer at a terrific price. Then the sales associate charges you for software you thought was included in the original package. You've been
Which of the following is cited in the text as an example of how changing behavior can alter attitudes?
civil rights legislation.
Historians suggest that, in Nazi Germany, citizens who were reluctant to support the Nazi regime experienced a profound inconsistency between their private beliefs and
reciting the public greeting "Heil Hitler" as a conformist greeting.
Impression management is to ____________ as cognitive dissonance is to ___________ .
self-presentation; self-justification
The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is greatest when
there is insufficient justification for the behavior.
Milford has always strongly believed that it is wrong to cheat. But after he himself cheats on a chemistry quiz, his attitude toward cheating becomes significantly less harsh. What best accounts for this attitude shift?
cognitive dissonance theory
William James, self-perception theory, and research findings all suggest that
A. your gait can influence how you feel.
B. your posture can influence how you feel.
C. your facial expressions can influence how you feel.
Give an example of a time when you (or someone you know) engaged in self-handicapping.
Before finals last year me and my friend were so stressed out for a final in a really hard class. We put off studying all of the time to watch the NBA playoffs. We even recorded the games that were overlapping and watch them after so that we could have yet another reason to procrastinate. And when we did poorly on our final in a class we just blamed it on the playoffs and watching the games because we already didn't think we were gonna do well.
Discuss cognitive bias in news-making. How might journalists overcome such biases?
Because we all certainly have cognitive biases journalists have the power to use that knowledge in manipulating the story so we attribute events to people and their wrong doings rather than the situational factors. Especially because we all know good news is no news and the negative stories that make the news are very likely to trigger us into thinking with a cognitive bias compared to a positive story. Honest journalists also struggle with it though because it is so natural for us to have a cognitive bias when we read hear about these negative stories. Journalists can overcome such biases like giving insight as to what is common. As an example, if there was a scandal with the President they would want to go into detail as to what is typical of him to do on an everyday basis, or to explain how he acted in similar instances in the past. This gives the observers of the news event more opportunity to see the Presidents behavior in multiple contexts. Then the audience should have enough information to decide whether the scandal can be attributed to the Presidents personality or to situational factors.
Describe an attitude that is important to you. Discuss examples of affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of your attitude.
I feel strongly about recycling. I think that it takes little effort but makes a big difference in our world. My affective component of my attitude is that it I am pro-recycling. The behavioral component of my attitude is I personally always recycle, I make sure all of my friends and family recycle, and I'm on the Green Team to help promote recycling in Boulder. The cognitive component of my attitude is that I know about how much waste we go through because I was in environmental biology and how its damaging our world; however, there is a great amount of value in recycling and it is extremely beneficial.
Evolutionary psychology
involves studying how natural selection predisposes traits and social behaviors.
Which of the following is shaped by where and when we live?
A. how we define beauty
B. how we define social justice
C. whether we tend to be expressive or reserved
"American drivers are expected to keep to the right on a two-lane road" would be an example of what the text calls a
The incest taboo is
a universal norm.
The characteristics people associate with male and female define
In general, women more than men give priority to
close relationships.
Men are more likely than women to gravitate toward jobs that
enhance inequalities.
Women are more likely than men to
A. make a charitable bequest from estate money.
B. buy greeting cards.
C. describe themselves as empathetic
A noticeable difference has not been found between males and females in
In every known society, men, relative to women
are socially dominant.
In group situations, men are more likely than women to
A. interrupt others.
B. smile less.
C. stare more.
Across cultures, men
A. prefer younger mates.
B. prefer women with physical features that suggest fertility.
C. are more likely to initiate sexual activity.
Higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in
A. violent male criminals.
B. boisterous fraternity members.
C. National Football League players.
As people mature to middle age and beyond,
gender differences in interpersonal behavior decrease.
The term "gender role" refers to
a set of behavioral expectations for males or females.
Compared to boys, girls in countries everywhere spend more time ___________ and less time _______________
helping with housework; in unsupervised play
A study of American gender roles indicates that
since 1970, increasing numbers of women have entered graduate school, medical school, and law school.
Twin and adoption studies indicate that genetic influences explain approximately _________ of individual variations in personality traits.
Conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing is called
Kenny is scolded by his mother and told to stand in the corner quietly for three minutes. While standing in the corner he mutters, "I may be standing, but inwardly I'm sitting." Kenny has been ____________ , but displays no sign of __________.
obedient; acceptance
As a freshman, Tim became a vegetarian in order to fit in with his new friends. Now, as a senior, Tim would never eat meat again. What process does Tim's experience illustrate?
At one time, aircraft had constant rather than blinking lights on the wingtips. When pilots in formation tried to follow the constant lights of the aircraft in front of them, they veered off course. This is perhaps best explained by
the autokinetic phenomenon.
Sherif's study of the autokinetic phenomenon best illustrates
informational influence.
Chartrand and Bargh (1999) found that participants in an experiment who worked alongside another person who occasionally rubbed her face were unwittingly more likely to rub their face. They called this
the chameleon effect.
Being around happy people can make us happy. This phenomenon is called
mood linkage.
When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that over 60 percent of them
went all the way up to 450 volts.
A psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of Milgram's participants a year after their participation concluded that
none had been harmed.
Which of the following was found to be a factor that influenced obedience in Milgram's research
A. the victim's emotional distance
B. the closeness of the authority
C. the presence of other defiant subjects
When Milgram's experimental series was reenacted in Bridgeport, Connecticut, far from the prestige and authority of Yale University, the proportion of participants who fully complied with orders to shock the learner ________________ compared to the Yale rate.
decreased to 48 percent
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not particularly hostile, can become agents of destruction.
According to conformity research, a group's social power is deflated when it loses its
In calling sports decisions, umpires and referees rarely change their decisions as a result of a player's objection. This may be an example of how
public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence.
After hearing a respected medical authority lecture about the value of eating fresh fruits and vegetables, Joshua includes more of them in his diet. This change in Joshua's eating patterns is an example of
informational social influence.
Peter hates to wear ties anywhere. Nevertheless he wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid the disapproval of his family. This is an example of
normative social influence.
When William McGuire and his Yale University colleagues invited children to "tell us about yourself," they found that the children were most likely to mention their
distinctive attributes.
In your opinion, what are the most important gender differences described in the textbook? Why?
There are a few very important gender differences described in our textbook: aggression, empathy, social dominance, and sexuality. I think it is pretty clear to all of us that men are much more aggressive than women, generally speaking. And in terms of a psychologists definition, this means that men behave with intentions of hurting someone. I feel like this trait goes hand in hand with that of women being more empathetic. This difference of men being more aggressive and women more empathetic truly shows how the genders can be polar opposite. Women seem to rarely get into fights with each other, but men rarely seem to even attempt to understand what other people are going through. I feel like men may even sometimes be aggressive because they lack that ability to empathize, but then again I'm bias because I'm a woman. Social dominance is another important gender difference because it is such a universal gender difference. When I think of political leaders all over the world most of them are men; when I think of heroes in stories from all cultures most of them are men. I think it may even be their aggression that helps them get to this dominating role that their gender seems to support. Sexuality is an important gender difference in my opinion because its almost the most obvious one, or maybe its just because I'm at that age in college. But boys seem to seek out women more, again, aggressively. They are definitely the initiators for the most part, but I feel like it may even have become a social norm for them the be the initiators, women expect it.
Discuss the ethics of Milgram's obedience experiments.
I understand that Milgram's obedience experiments may seem unethical because at the time the subjects thought that they were causing harm, to an extreme point, to other humans. But if they felt they were causing so much damage and it was terrorizing them internally, they should've refused to still give them the shock. I think that he debriefed them well enough on the experiment to the point where maybe it was more relieving than angering to hear that no one was actually harmed in the experiment. If anything I think the fact that people felt that it was unethical because they were uncomfortable with what the experiment revealed. Maybe the idea that they had it in them to do something that potentially could have been extremely harmful scared them, rather than that they were tricked. Either way they associated that bad feeling with the experiment and therefore explained it as unethical. Milgram's obedience experiments revealed some harsh realities, however I think that with proper debriefing it is ethical. His experiments were brilliant, and that's why they are a legacy
How are both the power of the situation and the power of the person evident in the results of Asch's conformity research?
The situation takes power and is evident in the results of Asch's conformity research in that being surrounded by all of these people who disagree with you leaves you feeling uncomfortable. The situation creates you as a minority, although there is no one pressuring you to conform. However, "there were no rewards for "team play" and no punishments for individuality". This means that the ultimate decision was left up to the subject and the power of the person. This situation ultimately should be only based upon the power of the person if it were played out in real life, however the situation takes power in making the subject question whether they should trust themselves or the majority.
The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors is called
According to the text, which of the following is one of the hurdles a persuasive message must clear in order to change attitudes and behavioral intentions?
A. Is the message comprehended?
B. Is the message believed?
C. Is the message remembered?
An automobile manufacturer who produces advertisements associating his cars with a young, attractive family enjoying picnics is most clearly using
peripheral route persuasion.
A computer manufacturer who produces advertisements comparing his product with other competing models on features and prices is most clearly using
central route persuasion.
Attitude change that has followed the central route is more likely to
A. persist.
B. resist attack.
C. influence behavior.
Over time the impact of a message from a noncredible source may __________, a phenomenon known as the
increase; sleeper effect.
You will be perceived as more credible if you
A. speak quickly.
B. argue against your own self-interest.
C. speak confidently, without hesitation.
Physical appeal and similarity are two important factors that determine a communicator's
_________________ audiences are more persuaded by _________________.
A. Well-educated; rational appeals
B. Uninvolved; how much they like the communicator
C. Highly involved; reasoned arguments
Fear-arousing messages have proven potent in convincing people to
A. cut down on smoking.
B. brush their teeth more often.
C. drive carefully.
According to the text, health warnings on cigarette ads are ineffective because they
lack vividness.
You have been asked to prepare a speech opposing capital punishment. To be most effective in convincing those who strongly favor the death penalty, you should present
a two-sided communication.
You are one of two candidates being interviewed for a position as superintendent of the city school system. You are notified that one candidate will be interviewed tomorrow evening and the other a week later. The school board will make a decision immediately after the second candidate has been interviewed. If you want the job
you should try to be interviewed last.
For minor issues, the impact of a persuasive appeal is likely to increase with
Persuasion studies demonstrate that the major influence on important beliefs and attitudes appears to be
our contact with people.
Which of the following is true regarding age differences in attitudes?
Attitudes formed in the teens and 20s tend to be stable thereafter.
Keela wants to persuade her parents to help pay for a study trip abroad this summer. She will have a more difficult time succeeding if
her parents are forewarned of her intent to convince them.
The text indicates that inoculation procedures have been successful in
reducing teenage smoking rates.
The social-facilitation effect has been found to apply to
A. people performing simple motor tasks.
B. chickens eating grain.
C. ants excavating sand.
The primary effect of a crowd is that is
enhances arousal.
Research on social facilitation suggests that the design of new office buildings in which private offices are replaced with large, open areas may
disrupt creative thinking on complex tasks.
Experiments show that people in groups loaf less when
the task is challenging.
Which of the following is likely to occur under conditions of deindividuation?
A. police brutality
B. screaming at a referee during a NCAA tournament game
C. stealing
People are more likely to bait a person to jump off a bridge when it is dark and
the crowd is large.
Zimbardo reported that women who were masked and hooded in KKK-style hoods and robes tended to ___________________ than women who were visible and wore name tags.
administer longer shocks to a victim
Group polarization occurs when group discussion _________ group members' initial inclinations.
Which of the following is an example of group polarization in one's community?
gang delinquency
Failing to ask questions in class because you assume everyone else understands best exemplifies
pluralistic ignorance.
According to the text, groupthink symptoms can be viewed as
a collective form of dissonance reduction.
"Mindguards" protect group leaders from
disagreeable facts.
Minority influence is most likely to have an impact through
central route persuasion.
The process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group defines
Research on leadership indicates that
effective supervisors tend to score high on both task and social leadership.
Describe a television commercial and analyze the elements of persuasion that it uses. Does it promote and/or assume central or peripheral route processing?
I just saw an Old Spice commercial and it definitely promotes its products using peripheral route processing. A phrase that is often repeated throughout the commercial is, "the man your man could smell like" being spoken by an attractive man with no shirt on and great abs. Its interesting because its not even directing the message to the consumer, but rather to women who date the consumer. This seems to convey the message that women want men who wear and use Old Spice. They use no rationale behind it which makes it clear that the advertisers for that company are using the peripheral route to persuasion.
Explain the principles and techniques you would use to become a cult leader.
If I were to become a cult leader I would make sure that my followers would commit to my cult "voluntarily, publicly, and repeatedly". I would have rituals performed often as well as having my new members become active right away in things such as "public canvassing and fundraising" to promote our cult. I would also ease my members into joining by taking advantage of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. This slow surrender to the cult would have them voluntarily locked into the cult according to the research in the text. I also would have to be a very charismatic leader while being credible at the same time, I would want my new members to trust me so that I can get them more and more involved. I also need my message to be "vivid" and "emotional" to try to appeal to people who may be lost or lonely in life and are looking to associate with a group to help them. Or looking for followers in different places, like people who may be at a turning point in their life and are vulnerable to suggestions for change. I also will project my messages to a younger crowd because they have been found to be more likely to join because their attitudes and beliefs aren't entirely stable yet. Once I have the members joined I will attempt to isolate them from any other social support systems and have them relying and believing entirely on my cult.
Self-awareness is the opposite of deindividuation. Explain.
Self-awareness is the opposite of deindividuation in that when we are self-aware we are consciously thinking of our actions and how we could be reprimanded if something goes wrong. When we are self-aware we are only thinking about how our actions will effect us. But when deindividuation occurs we aren't as aware of our actions because we are acting as a representative of a group. If there were to be consequences to those actions we wouldn't be so worried about them because it reflect upon the group poorly and not just us as individuals. We lose our identity a bit in deindividuation, and that is what makes us less aware. When we are practicing self-awareness we are making individual, independent choices. When we are in a situation of deindividuation we are making collective choices.
Which of the following clearly meets the definition of a stereotype?
Gretchen believes the British are reserved and unexcitable.
Prejudice is to discrimination as attitude is to
Which of the following would be an example of racism as the term is defined in the text?
A. Mr. Jones' refusal to rent his apartments to Asian-Americans 0%
B. Mrs. Smith's prejudice toward Latinos
C. a government regulation that prevents inner-city residents from being recruited to serve as Army officers
In the 1940s, researchers Kenneth Clark and Mamie Clark gave African-American children a choice between Black dolls and White dolls. Results showed that most
chose the White dolls.
When low-prejudiced people are aware of the gap between how they should respond and how they do respond to outgroup members, they primarily
feel guilty.
Data from 27 countries shows that people everywhere perceive women as more ____________, men as more _________________.
agreeable; outgoing
Most Americans agree that
they would vote for a qualified woman whom their party nominated for president.
When Ian Ayres and his colleagues visited Chicago area car dealers and used a uniform strategy to negotiate the lowest price on a new car, dealers charged __________________ the highest average price.
African-American females
Sex-selective abortions and infanticide in China and India have led to ________________ "missing women."
seventy-six million
Which of the following could explain the correlation between religion and racial prejudice?
A. People with less education may be both more fundamentalist and more prejudiced.
B. Prejudice may "cause" religion by leading people to create religious ideas that support their prejudices.
C. Religion may cause prejudice by leading people to believe that everyone has free will, so minorities are to blame for their own victimization.
According to social identity theory, people readily
A. categorize themselves and others.
B. identify with certain groups.
C. compare their group with other groups.
A group that is perceived as distinctive from one's own group is generally called
an outgroup.
John has just failed a chemistry test. He goes back to his apartment and criticizes his roommate's choice of music. What term best describes John's behavior?
displaced aggression
The tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces or their same race is called the
own-race bias.
The just-world phenomenon may lead us to believe that an unemployed person is
Pedro is biased against African-Americans, but as an avid sports fan, he admires Michael Jordan as a man and an athlete. When his son mentions this inconsistency, Pedro explains that Jordan is "different than those others." Pedro's thinking best reflects
Of the following, which is the best example of instrumental aggression?
A group of mercenaries, hired to kill the dictator of a small country, arrange to poison him.
Sigmund Freud argued that aggression ultimately springs from
a primitive death urge.
Instinct theories of aggression would have the most difficulty accounting for
wide variations in aggressiveness from culture to culture.
Compared to prisoners convicted of nonviolent crimes, people convicted of unprovoked violent crimes tend to
have higher testosterone levels.
Alcohol enhances aggressiveness by reducing
Frustration grows when
A. our motivation to achieve a goal is very strong.
B. we expected gratification.
C. we are completely blocked in attaining our goal.
In a famous experiment by Albert Bandura and colleagues, children watched an adult attack a Bobo doll with a mallet. They were then shown some attractive toys they were forbidden to play with. When they were taken to another room, they
attacked a Bobo doll.
The pain-attack response has been observed in
A. rats.
B. monkeys.
C. snakes.
Violent crimes are more likely
when the weather is hot.
Living three to a room in a college dorm seems to
diminish one's sense of control.
Imagine that Steve is driving home when a car cuts him off on the highway. Under which of the following conditions is he most likely to be enraged by this incident?
when he's on his way home from an arousing and electrifying rock concert
Research suggests that the sight of a weapon can
amplify aggression.
Which of the following has been found to be an effect of modeling sexual violence in movies and television?
men become more accepting of violence against women
John Court reports that as pornographic materials have become more widely available, the rate of reported rapes has generally been found to
Which of the following statements about rape is true?
A. Most stranger rapes and nearly all acquaintance rapes go unreported to police.
B. In surveys of students and working women, researchers have found that over one-quarter of women reported an experience that meets the legal definition of rape or attempted rape.
C. About one-third of college males admit there is the possibility that they would rape a woman if they thought no one would know and they would not be punished.
As part of therapy, a clinical psychologist encourages her patients to install a punching bag in their homes to release hostility. The therapist apparently believes in
C. the catharsis hypothesis.
Surveys of children and adolescents indicate that heavy viewers of TV violence
A. become desensitized to violence.
B. exaggerate the frequency of violence in the world.
C. are more fearful of being personally assaulted.
Experimental studies of the catharsis hypothesis lead to the conclusion that
expressing hostility breeds more hostility.
Based on the text's discussion of the social sources of prejudice, can you think of at least two ways to reduce prejudice in America?
1) Although it is unrealistic, and may even sound communist, we could make our social statuses more equal because as the text says and as we are well aware, "unequal status breeds prejudice". If we were more equal in our social and economic status we could prevent prejudices that come with the differences in wealth and power. Of course this idea of making our social statuses equal is unrealistic, and sounds like Karl Marx's thoughts and theories of communism. 2) We also should all look at the things that we DO have in common from each other so as to blend the ingroup and outgroup. We need to look more at our similarities than our differences. It's much easier to be friends with someone who you have things in common with, so if we look at the things we we do have in common with each other we can unite as opposed to divide into the us group and the they group.
Explain Berkowitz's revised frustration-aggression theory
Berkowitz addressed the frustration- aggression theory by revising it to explain that anger stems from frustration. We usually gain that anger when someone frustrates us even though they could have chosen to act differently that wouldn't have evoked that feeling of frustration which produced anger. Once we have these frustrated feelings we are very likely to act on them aggressively if there are aggressive cues, for example the sight of a weapon.
Given what we know about the causes of aggression and the factors that contribute to its expression, suggest five strategies for reducing aggression in our society.
1) We can reduce aggression by keeping violence away from children so that they don't learn it socially through modeling. If we keep violence from them at a young age and model behavior that is anti-aggression, when they grow up they will be more likely to act without aggression. 2) We should also limit pornography, seeing as studies show it contributes to men acting aggressively towards women. 3) We also should limit the amount of violence and aggression in the media, especially television. Extreme exposure of violence in the media distorts viewers reality of violence, according to the text. 4) We also need to begin steering away from the catharsis hypothesis. This text has shown me that "expressing aggression more often breeds than reduces further aggression". 5)In group situations we can reduce aggression by not diffusing responsibilities. When that occurs it has been found to "amplify aggression". The people who give the orders should have to take part in carrying out the task so that they are apart of the aggression and aren't delegating actions so that they understand the effects of their aggression. Kind of like in Milgram's experiment.
If you are new in the office and want to make new friends, your best bet is to get a desk
near the coffeepot.
Being excluded, avoided, or given the silent treatment leads people to
experience a depressed mood and anxiety.
A stranger rides the same bus you do to school every day. According to the mere exposure effect, as the days pass you will come to view the stranger
more favorably.
When people describe themselves in personal ads seeking partners of the other sex, women often offer __________________ and seek _______________.
attractiveness; status
Jen is more in love with Stan today than the day she married him. According to research on the relationship between love and perceived attractiveness,
Jen probably finds Stan to be more attractive today than the day she married him.
The tendency for opposites to mate or marry
has never been reliably demonstrated.
The advice to continue having romantic dinners, trips to the theater, and vacations once married would most probably be offered by
reward theory of attraction.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg views love as a triangle whose three sides include all but which of the following?
Seven in ten infants exhibit _________________ attachment.
Those involved in relationships marked by long-term equity
are unconcerned with short-term equity.
In addition to love and satisfaction, close relationships that last are rooted in
A. fear of the costs of ending the relationship.
B. a sense of moral obligation to the relationship.
C. inattention to possible alternative partners.
According to social exchange theory, we use a ________________ strategy in deciding when and whether to help others.
The vicarious experience of another's feeling is
In which of the following countries is the norm of social responsibility supported most strongly?
According to evolutionary theory, genetic selfishness predisposes us toward helping based on
Latane and Darley attempted to explain people's failure to intervene in cases like that of Kitty Genovese in terms of
situational influences.
The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called
the bystander effect.
In an enactment of the Good Samaritan situation, Darley and Batson studied the helpfulness of Princeton seminarians in order to assess whether helping behavior is influenced by
time pressures.
A negative mood is more likely to boost helping in _________ than in ________.
adults; children
Which of the following negative moods is most likely to enhance helping behavior?
Research on personality traits indicate that those high in __________ are most likely to be concerned and helpful.
emotionality, empathy, and self-efficacy
Compared to low self-monitoring people, high self-monitoring people are especially helpful if they think that
helpfulness will be socially rewarded.
Your roommate asks you to loan her $50 to buy her boyfriend a birthday present, and you refuse. She then asks for three dollars to purchase a new notebook. You loan her the three dollars. Your roommate has successfully used the
door-in-the-face technique.
Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?
A. reduce the ambiguity of the situation
B. model prosocial behavior
C. make people feel guilty
Conflict is defined as
perceived incompatibility of actions or goals.
Despite the fact that, as Sherif noted about his famous Robber's Cave experiment, the behavior of the boys in the warring camps seemed "wicked, disturbed, and vicious," what actually triggered their evil behavior was
an evil situation.
Compared to Americans, people socialized in China and India are more likely to favor ______________ as the basis for justice when rewards are distributed to those within their groups.
Destructive mirror-image perceptions operate in conflicts between
A. countries.
B. small groups.
C. individuals.
Which of the following is not one of the four C's of peacemaking identified in the text?
Through the use of ______________ , Muzafer Sherif made enemies into friends.
superordinate goals
Elliot Aronson's jigsaw technique involved having elementary school children
form academically and racially diverse groups with each member of the group becoming an expert in one area.
Someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a _______________ identity.
______________ occurs when a neutral third party attempts to facilitate communication and offer suggestions for how to resolve a conflict.
David and Julie fought over what to name their new puppy, until finally they went to Mom to get her to decide on a settlement. David and Julie relied on ___________ to resolve their conflict.
The GRIT model could be applied to the reduction of conflict between
A. individuals.
B. groups.
C. nations
Describe and analyze a relationship that you or someone you know has been in that fits one of the six types of love proposed by Robert Sternberg (1988) in Figure 11-
I would say that my parents have a relationship that fits Robert Sternberg's definition of fatuous love. They are very emotional with each other keep things exciting and intense, however when they disagree or are having a rough patch they fully believe in the commitment they made to each other and do not let their hardships get in the way of that because they trust that they have that passion most other days. They are always talking about growing old together and in my eyes that incorporates passion and commitment, just like fatuous love.
Identify the steps in Darley and Latane's "decision tree" of helping. Based on this model, how could you increase your chances of getting someone to help you in an emergency?
If I needed help, I would not only yell help, but I would yell what was going on to reduce the ambiguity of the incident. I would say something like, "Help! I'm being beat, this man won't stop hitting me!" (Assuming that I could talk) That way people are aware of exactly what's going on and can think of how to respond, instead of only vaguely assuming nothing major is wrong. I also would say to someone who was walking by, maybe after I was beat, that if they walk by and don't help they are being irresponsible so as to motivate them to increase their personal responsibility and maybe give them enough motivation to actually help me. I could also make them feel sort of guilty and say things like please help me, if I don't get help soon I may bleed out. I may be overly dramatic to get a little more attention if I really needed the help. Or I could also say something like, you seem like a good person please help, so that they become aware of their self image and the need to help me.
Compare and contrast the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Tragedy of the Commons.
In comparison, both scenarios will have good outcomes if everyone involved in the situations cooperate. The controversial piece to each of these social dilemmas is that people are constantly trying to maximize their personal rewards and minimize their personal punishments. Because of this social exchange theory it seems that most people will betray the others in order to receive what is best for them. They are also both non-zero-sum games. Cooperation is the best that people can do in both social dilemmas. Both social dilemmas are also based on situational behaviors and changing motives. In contrast, the Prisoner's Dilemma deals only with two parties while the Tragedy of the Commons involves multiple parties. Regulations can help out int the Tragedy of the Commons, however most of the time there are no regulations that help out in the Prisoner's Dilemma because it only involves two parties that were in a previous alliance, its a relationship thing.
According to the text, professional clinical judgments are vulnerable to
A. illusory correlations.
B. overconfidence bred by hindsight.
C. self-confirming diagnosis.
Following the suicide of a friend or family member, feelings of guilt are often magnified by
hindsight bias.
In the Rosenhan study, clinicians who dealt with pseudo-patients who had faked symptoms to get into mental hospitals demonstrated the error of
hindsight bias.
Research indicates that when interviewers are instructed to test for a trait, they tend to ask questions that show evidence of
the confirmation bias.
Freudian therapists who expect to find evidence of early childhood traumas are likely to uncover such experiences among clients who are
A. gay males.
B. real victims of childhood sex abuse.
C. healthy, successful adults.
A meta-analysis conducted by a University of Minnesota research team found that out of 134 studies, _________ showed clinical judgments to be superior to statistical prediction.
According to the text, the pervasiveness of illusory thinking points to the need for a ______________ study of thought and behavior.
The tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments is referred to as
depressive realism.
Compared to depressed people, normal people
exaggerate their control of events around them.
Compared to nondepressed people, depressed people are more likely to attribute their failures and setbacks to causes that are
The vicious cycle of depression is usually triggered by negative experiences that lead directly to
self-focus and self-blame.
In the industrialized world, at least half of all deaths are linked with
A growing body of evidence reveals that people who undergo highly stressful experiences become
more vulnerable to disease.
Mary wants advice on how to cope with the stress of a new job. She would be best advised to approach her new job with a sense of
control and optimism.
Peterson and Seligman analyzed the press quotes of baseball Hall of Famers and found that those who routinely offered pessimistic explanations for bad events, like losing big games, were more likely to
die at younger ages.
Having shy or anxious people observe, then rehearse, then try out more assertive behaviors in real situations is called
social skills training.
Bill, a middle-aged insurance salesman, has recently managed to lose 50 pounds while on a weight-control program. Research suggests that he is most likely to maintain the weight loss if he
credits his success to his own efforts at self-control.
Which of the following is the best predictor of overall happiness?
satisfaction with marriage
A prosecuting attorney is uncertain whether her eyewitness will seem credible to the jury. The eyewitness's testimony could help win a conviction, but the witness might be discredited by the defense attorney. What advice should the prosecutor accept?
Put the witness on the stand, since even a discredited eyewitness is more convincing than not eyewitness at all.
City police find that Mr. Caldwell, an eyewitness to a murder in a local bank, correctly remembers many trivial details of the crime scene, including the specific time on the clock and the paintings on the wall. Research findings suggest that Mr. Caldwell's recall of trivial details means
it is less likely that he can also correctly identify the murderer.
Of the following eyewitnesses to a crime, who would probably appear most believable to a jury?
Paul, a radio announcer who appears very confident about what he saw
In a classic 1947 experiment, Allport and Postman showed participants a picture of a White man brandishing a razor while arguing with a Black man. After six tellings of the story, participant to participant, the last version of the story said that
the Black man held the razor.
In research by Loftus and colleagues, University of Washington students were shown slides depicting successive stages of an automobile-pedestrian accident. Results showed that
asking misleading questions caused distortion of eyewitnesses' memories.
Research on memory construction indicates that suggestive questioning can lead people to believe that
A. a yield sign was actually a stop sign.
B. a red light was actually green.
C. a robber had a mustache when he did not.
Research on the memories of young children indicates that
they are especially susceptible to misinformation.
Eyewitness testimony can be distorted or biased by which of the following?
A. suggestive questions
B. an eyewitness' own retelling of events
C. whether they are an eyewitness for the defendant or the plaintiff
Stan was initially uncertain about the man he identified as the burglar in a police lineup. His confidence increased, however, after
being asked the same question repeatedly.
Clarence Darrow (1933) argued that "facts regarding the crime are relatively unimportant." Research suggests that
Darrow was too cynical—facts do matter.
Which of the following factors is not likely to lead to a lighter sentence for the person convicted?
Which of the following factors has been shown to influence either the likelihood of conviction or the severity of punishment?
A. status
B. attractiveness
Student Response C. similarity to the jurors
Research indicates that jurors are more likely to be persuaded when attorneys present evidence
in the order of a narrative story.
Death-qualified jurors are
more likely to convict in criminal cases.
Research suggests that jury deliberations can be influenced by all of the following processes except
Research suggests that jurors in the minority will be most persuasive when they
A. are consistent.
B. are self-confident.
C. win defections from the majority.
How are chronic shyness, loneliness, and depression related?
They are all related through the characteristic of being focused on internal affairs as opposed to thinking globally. When people are shy they think about themselves and how they look if when they talk and if they have something good to say; they are considering all of their own personal and internal issues and worries. Many people are lonely because they look at their internal issues and worry so much about themselves that they forget to worry about others and their relationships with others and those relationships then fade. People who are depressed attribute their failures and bad things that happen to them to their own internal errors and mistakes. Shyness, loneliness, and depression are all related by the idea of being so worried about internal issues rather than global ones.
The FBI includes the "cognitive interview" procedure in its training program. Describe this procedure and explain why it helps reduce error in eyewitness testimony.
The interview consists of four steps for memory retrieval. First, they ask the person to give a descriptive picture of the setting of things like objects in the room and their mental state at the time of the incident. Second, the interviewer asks that every detail be reported regardless of how minor or insignificant the witness may think it is. The interviewer then asks the witness for a complete narrative of what happened and will repeat asking them for a narrative from several different starting points in the narrative so that they can get multiple perspectives. The last part of it is asking the witness what other people may have seen, giving the interviewer other witnesses possible perspectives. They then take this information and find overlapping and consistent parts to their story, giving those bits of information more credit. This procedure helps reduce error in eyewitness testimony because it finds consistencies throughout the witness's stories and gives them very detailed information which can be more credible.
What constructive steps can be taken to increase the accuracy and objectivity of jury members?
Maybe explaining this social psychology of errors in jury members decisions and showing them common errors that are made. Also fully explaining the system of the courtroom and how information that has been objected really must be omitted when thinking about the verdict. Possibly ensuring that there are a mix of death-qualified and unqualified people are members of the jury. Keeping the jury diverse may also help increase the accuracy and objectivity of jury members.