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Genose Captian in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; succsesfully sailed to new world and retuned in 1492
Portuguese captain in spanish service; began the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519; died during voyage; allowed Spain to claim possession fo the Philippines
East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually indepent goverenment in regions it claimed
Established by europeans in 16th century; based on control of seas, including Atlantic and Pacific; created international exchanges of food disease and products
Biological and ecological exchange that took place folling the Spanish establishment of colonies in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to New World
Navel battle between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571
Nations, usally European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial servicessuch as shipping
French colonies in North America; extended from St Lawerence River along great lakes and down Mississippi River
Treaty of Paris
Arranged in 1763 following Seven Years World; granted New France to England in exchange for French suger island in Caribbean
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with with Bantus
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinant;located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years War; later became administrtive center for all of Bengel
Seven Years War
Fought in both Europe and overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Russian seizures of land from Austria, English seziures of colonies in India and North America
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economics in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe
People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica amd South America; particulary prevalent in areas colonized by Spain
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason; argued that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants
Vasco de Balboa
a Spaniard, who in 1513 crossed the Isthmus of Panama and became the first known European to gaze westward upon the great ocean that separated America from China.
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean
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