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Christopher Columbus

Genose Captian in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; succsesfully sailed to new world and retuned in 1492

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese captain in spanish service; began the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519; died during voyage; allowed Spain to claim possession fo the Philippines

East India Company

Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually indepent goverenment in regions it claimed

World Economy

Established by europeans in 16th century; based on control of seas, including Atlantic and Pacific; created international exchanges of food disease and products

Columbian Exchange

Biological and ecological exchange that took place folling the Spanish establishment of colonies in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to New World


Navel battle between the Spanish and the Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571

Core Nations

Nations, usally European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial servicessuch as shipping

New France

French colonies in North America; extended from St Lawerence River along great lakes and down Mississippi River

Treaty of Paris

Arranged in 1763 following Seven Years World; granted New France to England in exchange for French suger island in Caribbean

Cape Colony

Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with with Bantus


Dutch settlers in the Cape Colony, in southern Africa


Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinant;located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years War; later became administrtive center for all of Bengel

Seven Years War

Fought in both Europe and overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Russian seizures of land from Austria, English seziures of colonies in India and North America

Cape of Good Hope

Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India


Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economics in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe


People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica amd South America; particulary prevalent in areas colonized by Spain

John Locke

English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason; argued that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants

Vasco de Balboa

a Spaniard, who in 1513 crossed the Isthmus of Panama and became the first known European to gaze westward upon the great ocean that separated America from China.

Francisco Pizzaro

Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese captain who sailed for India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean

Dependent Economy


Atlantic Colonies

British colonies in North America along atlantic coast

William Shakespeare

English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)

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