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80 terms

Psychology Life Span

STUDY
PLAY
In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty
with communication
When 4-year-old Karen is angry, she lashes out by hitting. This is an example of
an externalizing problem
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called
automatization
The biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the
hypothalamus
For boys, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is
growth of the testes; initial pubic-hair growth; growth of the penis; spermarche
Girls who bully typically
mock and ridicule their victim
When Piaget and Inhelder asked children of different ages to balance a scale using several different weights, they found that
by age 10, children tended to use trial-and-error strategies
Jefferson High School has rules and regulations that guarantee student representation in school affairs. John, a senior, has learned that the administration of his high school wants obedience. Obedience at John's school is a(n)
hidden curriculum
The Electra complex causes girls to
adore their father and resent their mother
Which of the following contributes to an adolescent's lessening susceptibility to respiratory infections
shrinkage of the lymphoid system
A child who feels responsible for whatever happens in the family, whether negative or positive, is experiencing
parentification
Does the ability of schoolchildren to use deductive reasoning tend to develop at the same time as their ability to use inductive reasoning?
No, deductive reasoning tends to develop later than inductive reasoning
Because adolescents regard themselves as uniquely special
it is difficult for them to envision another person's perspective
The percentage of adolescents that consumed the recommended five or more servings of fruits or vegetables daily has
decreased over the past decade
Which of the following is true of hypothetical thought
It involves imagined possibilities
In girls, the average age for the breast bud stage is
10
In the United States, in which of the following ethnic groups would you be least likely to find single fathers?
Asian Americans
Of the following parts of the brain, which is the last to fully mature in adolescence?
prefrontal cortex
Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?
parallel play
Developmental psychopathology has given us the following lesson applicable to all children
abnormality is normal
What percent of teh world's 7-year-olds ar in school, approximately?
90 percent
Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one's performance is called
metacognition
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but is not intended to harm is called
rough-and-tumble play
Which of the following is the most frequently reported STI?
Chlamydia
According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?
an immodest self-concept
Preconventional morality involves
an emphasis on reward and punishment
Diana Baumrind is known for her work on
styles of parenting
By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships?
Both boys and girls want to have best friends
Kanner describes autism as
"an extreme aloneness...."
The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and
expectations for maturity
For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs
following growth of the testes and penis
Large high schools are economical, and they
do not increase student learning
Ever since he began puberty, Barry has been staying awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. His parents should
realize that this is due to hormonal shifts
Achievement tests are designed to measure
how much has been learned
Using inductive thinking, a person might think, "If it barks like a dog, and wags like a dog, it must be a "
dog
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called
the Oedipus complex
For boys, the event that most closely parallels menarche is the
spermarche
Which of the following best explains why children who come from violent homes have few close friends and are lonely?
The children don't learn the skills necessary to sustain close relationships
The still-developing prefrontal cortex and the full development of the limbic system are at least partially responsible for
the passion and commitment with which adolescents and young adults embrace nontraditional ideas
Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because
the theory is seen as not taking inot account cultural differences
If high schools want to decrease the incidence of violence, they should
set clear standards of student behavior
Which of the following attributes is typical of school-age children?
They engage in social comparison
During the latency stage, children
assimilate cultural values
Most likely, autism is caused by
genetic vulnerability coupled with other factors
___ is generally considered a more mature emotion than ___ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness
Guilt; shame
Parents' beliefs that they mold their children's personalities may be diminished by the finding that
most of the environmental effects on personality may be from the "nonshared" environment
The IQ test specifically designed for school-age children is the
WISC
To understand gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress
reinforcement
One of the most prominent aspects of adolescent thought is the ability to
think in terms of possibilities
Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing an eating disorder?
the family sharing meals together
The term used to describe an infant's thought process that relies on senses and motor skills is
sensorimotor intelligence
Regarding the visual cliff experiment, even 3-month-olds notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff. However, one affordance of the cliff, falling, is realized only after
infants start crawling
Primary circular reactions involve
the infant's own body
In an experiment, 3-month-old infants could remember one week later to kick their legs to make a crib mobile move, but many could not remember to do it two weeks later. This research indicates that
memory is fragile early in life
According to your text, early sensation appears to be organized toward which two goals?
social interaction and comfor
Which statement is TRUE?
A) Infants develop sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted
B) Piaget accurately predicted the speed of infant cognitive development
C) Piaget utilized an acceptable experimental design to test his cognitive development theory
D) NONE of the above statements is true
Infants develop sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget predicted
Information is carried from one neuron to another by
neurotransmitters
According to the text, which three factors enable toddlers to walk?
muscle strength, brain maturation, and practice
Children show evidence of memory as early as ___ months of age
3
Stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by
new adaptation and anticipation
Which research approach looks at various cohorts over time?
cross-sequential
In his cross-sequential study on intelligence and age, Schaie found that after age 53, in men the cognitive ability for ___ was the most rapidly declining
word fluency
When does senescence start?
the end of adolescence
Which of the following is NOT one of Sternberg's three fundamental forms of intelligence? a) analytic b) fluid c) creative d) practical
fluid
Rosa works as a chemist and in her spare time is a history buff. She would be said to be high in:
crystallized intelligence
Compared to men, women live:
5 years longer
What aspect of the study of adult intelligence changes every few decades?
measures of intelligence
As we age, the lens of the eye becomes less elastic and the cornea flattens. This leads to:
farsightedness
___ of all IVF cycles produce a pregnancy
one-third
In 1970, in the United States, ___ of all adult men and ___ of all adult women smoked
one-half; one-third
Emerging adults are ___ likely than high school senior to drink too much and ___ likely to be addicted to cigarettes
more; more
According to research by Labouvie-Vief (2006), no one under the age of 20 was in the advanced ___ stage of self-description
integrated
For emerging adults, friends with benefits implies that:
sexual passion is less important than friendship
About ___ percent of all adults experience at least one episode of schizophrenia
1
According to the text, "complex, critical, and relativizing thinking emerges only"
in the 20s
Today's emerging adults have ___ than previous generations
more sexual partners
In what period of life do people engage in the heaviest drinking (binge)?
emerging adulthood
When compared to college freshman, college seniors exhibit better
all of these answers are correct (oral and written communication; abstract reasoning and critical thinking; intellectual flexibility)
An explanation for the prevalence of schizophrenia in males age 18 to 24 is
the diathesis-stress model of mental illness
The category of self-description that is fragmented and overwhelmed by emotions or problems is called
dysregulated