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to lead away


to draw towards






stretch out




same side


away from the midline


to place against




straight, right

Joint function

joint ALLOW motion. muscles CREATE motion. ligaments LIMIT motion

Axial motion occurs around an axis

Circular motion, which one part moves more than the other part.

Nonaxial motion does not occur around an axis

Unlike circular, both parts move the same and glides in a liner direction.

Fundamental bases of motion

Roll (rock)/ Spin/Glide


1. ventral surface of the two body parts at the joint come close together. 2. is the opposite.




1.- brings a body part away from the midline of the body. 2 - moves closer towards the midline.

Right lateral flexion/ left lateral flexion

1 - bends a body part to the right side. 2 is the opposite, when it moves to the left.

Lateral rotation/ medial rotation

1 - anterior surface of the body rotates away from the midline. 2 - part rotates towards the midline.

Right rotation/ left rotation

1 - anterior surface of the part rotates to the right. 2 - rotates to the right.


1 - ankle joint where the foot moves inferiorly, towards the plantar surface of the foot. 2 - foot moves superiorly towards the dorsal surface.


1 is the movement between tarsal bones where the plantar surface of the foot turns away from the midline of the body. 2 is the opposite when the plantar surface turns towards the midline of the body


1 is the movement of the forearm where the radius crosses over the ulna. 2 is when the radius uncrosses to return to a position parallel to the ulna.


1 is defined as a movement at a joint that brings a body part anteriorly. 2 is the opposite of protraction, when the body part moves posteriorly.


1 is a movement at the joint that brings a body part superiorly. 2 is when the body part moves inferiorly.

Upward rotation/ downward rotation

Are terms for the Clavical and Scapula. Upward and downward are axial movements that occur in the vertical plane.

Anterior tilt/posterior tilt

are terms for the pelvis. Both occur in the sagittal plane, axial movements and occur in the mediolateral axis.


1 is defined as the movement of the thumb wherin the pad of the thumb meets another finger. 2 is when the thumb returns to the starting position. 1 is a combination of abduction, flexion and medial rotation. 2 is a combo of extension, lateral rotation, and adduction.

Right lateral deviation/ left lateral deviation

1 is a movement that a joint brings a body part to the right. 2 is when it brings it to the left. Both are frontal and transverse planes and could be axial or nonaxial depending on the movement.

Horizontal flexion/ horizontal extension

1 is deined as a horizontal movement in an anterior direction of the arm at the shoulder joint or thigh at the hip joint. 2 is the opposite, when a horizantal movement in a posterior direction of the arm or thigh.


Is denote movement that is beyond considered normal, or describe normal beyond anatomic position


For joint actions. It is combo of actions that occur at the joint. At appendicular involved frontal, sagital of adduction, extension, abduction, and flexion. In the Axail it involves frontal and sagittal of the RLF extension LLF and flexion.

Reverse actions

A reverse action is an action that occurs at the same joint with the same direction of motion... but the "other" body part moves

Reverse actions versus antagonist actions

is when a muscle contracts and the attachment stays fixed.


Is an arrow drawn to represent the line of the pull of the muscle.

"Resolving" a vector

draw in the compenent vector arrows that begin at the tail of the vector arrow at the end of the arrowhead.

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