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Endocrine System

syst. of glands that secretes hormones in the body

Limbic System

controls emotions and helps with forming memories

limbic system location

lies on both sides of thalamus


Sustaining ____ can lead to Parkinson's Disease


monitors internal body conditions


hypothalamus is connect to _____ by stalk

_______ releases factors to Pituitary


Anterior and posterior

2 Lobes of the pituitary


Pituitary lobe with outgrowth from the roof of the mouth


pituitary lobe with outgrowth from the brain

posterior lobe

wh. pituitary lobe doesn't synthesize hormones

Posterior Pituitary Lobe secretes which hormones

ADH, Oxytocin

Anterior Pituitary Lobe secretes which hormones

ACTH, thyrotropic, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Somatatropin


hormone that regulates salt and water targets kidney walls


triggers uterine contractions during birth; acts as mammary glands to secrete milk


synthetic oxytocin


hormone; adrenal glands


hormone; thyroid gland


hormone (x2); ovary


hormone; breast


hormone; general


regulates the internal environment to maintain stable, constant conditions...BALANCE


Normal blood levels for homeostasis

Alpha, glycogen

When blood glucose is low ___ cells release _____

Beta, Insulin

When blood glucose is high ____ calls release _____

Negative feedback

as hormone levels rise, secretion is inhibited

Positive feedback

as hormone levels rise, secretion is stimulated


When LH is secreted by ovaries it eventually causes the follicle to burst, which is called what?

CL or Corpus Luteum

Ovulation causes ___(hormone)___ formation


CL secretes ____ wh. stimulates uterine lining growth


implanted embryo produces ___ which maintains CL


hormones are ____ molecules

synergistically, antagonistically, permissively

3 ways hormones interact with each other

Steroid, Peptide

____ hormones assemble from cholesterol
____ hormones assemble from amino acids

lipid, water

Steroid hormones are ___ soluble
Peptide hormones are ___ soluble

2nd Messenger of Peptide hormone

intracellular molecule that relays signals from hormone-receptor complex into the cell


most common 2nd messenger molecule


Thyroid gland synthesizes and secretes _____


Thyroid gland requires ___ bc it's lacking salt deposits

cortisol, adrenaline or epinephrine

Adrenal gland cortex produces _____
medulla produces _____

Pineal Gland

light-sensitive gland that regulates timing of sexual activity in mammals, secretes melatonin, and regulates circadian rhythms


melatonin is secreted in the absence of what?


______ develops if Beta cells don't produce enough insulin of if target tissues don't respond to insulin

Hormones + Glands = Endocrine System

Classic View of the Endocrine System

exocrine system

system that secretes out of body and have ducts (tears, saliva, sweat, etc...)

endocrine exocrine

the pancreas is responsible for what to systems

aerobic respiration

physiological process by which oxygen moves into internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out

cell membranes

gases diffuse along

concentration of gases

primary determinant of differential pressure is _________

20% .21/160 mm HG
79% 600 mm Hg
.04% .0004

Oxygen __% in air and partial press___/____
Nitrogen __% in air and partial press ___
Carbon Dioxide __% in air and partial press ___

atmospheric pressure

pressure exerted by the weight of air on objects on earth's surface

O2 CO2

Diffusion of cellular metabolism uses __ and produces __

low high

O2 concentration inside cell tends to be low/high?
CO2 concentrations inside cell tends to be low/high?

in out

under the right conditions...O2 will diffuse in/out cells and CO2 will diffuse in/out of cells

moist thin different

in order for diffusion to take place...
cell surfaces must be ______
membrane must be ______
O2 and CO2 concentrations must be _____ across membrane

increase decreases

as animal size ____, surface-to-volume ratio ____

the need for providing O2 to all parts of the cell

size of the cell is limited by what?


most common transport protein

dissolve O2 from H2) from the gills

How do aquatic animals get O2?

counter-current flow

blood flow can optimize gas exchange across gills by_____

spiracles and lungs

2 ways to maintain moisture in terrestrial animals

outside throughout the body

In Insects, trachea tubes open to _____ and branch ______

transfer proteins

there is no ______ for oxygen in insect

animals size

complexity of branching in vertebrate lungs is dependent on what?

gills lungs

Amphibian juveniles use _______ for respiration while adults use ______ ....(hybrid)

bottom of oral cavity

in amphibians, air is forced into the lungs by the movement of what?

inelastic vascular air sacs

Avian (bird) lungs are
________ - don't move a lot
________ - have a lot of blood flow
________ - added accessories for respiration


In birds, more O2 is taken up as air goes through the lungs during inhale/exhale?

nasal/oral, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole, alveoli

order of the mammalian respiratory tract


dead end sacs at the end of bronchiole of mammalian lungs where actual exchange of gases takes place


pulmonary arteries carry ____ oxygenated air than pulmonary veins

peptides iron

hemoglobin consist of 4 ______ with _____ at it's center

high low

Hemoglobin has great affinity for oxygen at high/low partial pressure in capillaries?
Hemoglobin has lower affinity for oxygen in tissues where there's a high/low partial pressure


Fetal or Adult hemoglobin has higher affinity

# of red blood cells and increase their heart and lung size

individuals living at higher altitudes increase what two things?

carbon monoxide nitrates/nitrites

what is produced when molecules bind strongly to hemoglobin making it unavailable for transport of O2?


____% of carboxyhemoglobin can cause death


CO2 forms what?


bicarbonate is highly reactive in what?

medulla oblongata

helps in controlling breathing by setting rhythm; centers in pons fine-tune it

concentration of oxygen and hydrogen

magnitude of breathing depends on ______

carotid and aortic bodies

____ and ___ detect drops in oxygen and responds by increases breathing

superoxide dimutase

protection against free radicals

5x 50%

extended life span of C.Elegans. Drosophila by...
extended life span of D. melanogaster by...

mouth pharynx esophagus stomach liver gallbladder pancreas small intestine large intestine rectum anus

major components of the digestive system

epithelial cells

_____ cells line the entire digestive tract

fats proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids

food is a mixture of which complex substances

fatty acids amino acids simple sugars

monomers absorbed across cell membranes


The process of turning food into absorbable nutrients


movement of nutrients across cell membranes into blood

carbohydrates proteins lipids nucleic acids

major classes of molecules in food

lipids nucleic acids carbohydrates proteins

major classes of molecules in food
___ -built up from triglycerides
___ - sugar/phosphate backbone; bases
___ - based on sugars C, H, and O
___ - built up from amino acids contain N


Digestion is mediated by _____

fiber, olestra, water

substances not absorbed that become feces

mouth amylases disaccharides chiton cellulose

Digestion of Carbohydrates

Enzymes in saliva?
Cannot be digested by vertebrate enzymes

stomach pepsin trypsin chymotrypsin carboxy- and amino-peptidases

Digestion of Proteins

____ - cleaves proteins into small peptides
in small intestine.. cleavage is continued by (3)


_____ in proteins poses problems in excretory system

stomach endo exo

Digestion of Nucleic Acids

____ and ___ nucleases continue degradation

small intestine bile cholesterol lipases

Digestion if Lipids

liver secretes ___ into gall bladder
bile derives from _____
Emulsified fats can be digested by ____

small intestine jejunum

absorption of nutrients occurs mostly where?
which part is most absorptive


villi have outer surfaces composed of ______ which increase surface area of jejunum

carbohydrates proteins fats

Food Pyramid
______ used for energy
______ building, repair structures
______ insulation, some vitamins, linoleic acid

water fat

Vitamins are ____ and ___ soluble

lead cadmium mercury

purely toxic mineral s(3)

functional food

any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond basic nutrition function of supplying nutrients0-

ammonia uric acids urea

Chemistry of Waste

aquatic animals generate _____
birds, lizards, terrestrial arthropods _____
Mammals generate _____

renal capsules outer renal cortex inner renal medulla renal pelvis ureter nephron

structure of kidney

______ surround kidneys
2 regions
______ collects urine and funnels it to _____
basic unit = _______

bowman's capsule

cup-like sac at end of nephron that filters blood to urine; contains many capillaries

loop of henle

bowman's capsule connects to what?

in bloodstream inside tubule of nephron in extracellular space

abstracting the system

3 compartments = ___ ___ ___


each day ___ liters of filtrate flows out of glomeruli into tubules
______ liters or urine excreted


regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine.

more reabsorption of water

longer loop of henle allows what?

feedbacks kidney to hypothalamus

from hairpin bend to distal tubule

hormonal action is triggered by _____ from ___ to ___

concentrating urine more

in collecting tubules of nephron

water is removed from filtrate causing what?

posterior pituitary collecting ducts makes walls more permeable to water and urine more concentrated posterior pituitary injury and diabetes


secreted by ______
acts on ________; what does it do? (2)
loss of ADH leads to what? (2)

adrenal glands sodium decreases renin


secreted by ______
stimulates _________ from extracellular spaces
If too much NA+ is lost from the body, extracellular fluid volume increase/decrease causing wall of glomerulus to secrete _____

walls of glomerulus angiotensin II

Renin is secreted by _______ and activates _______

plasma sodium

Angiotensin II

precursor protein is in ____
increased angiotensin increases ____ reabsorption

glomerulus renin increases sodium blood pressure kidney failure 140/90

Failure of Aldosterone feedback system

when blood flow through glomerulus decreases...
____ secretes _____
Aldosterone secretion increase/decrease?
____ retained in the body
_____ goes up

High blood pressure leads to _____

avoid blood pressure > ___/___

diffusion simple filtering tubes malpighian tubules

Elimination of waste

one-celled organisms - ____
flatworms - ____
insects - ___

marine freshwater marine marine

water and salt balance in bony fish (freshwater vs. marine)

which drinks water?
water gain by osmosis going in?
solutes pumped out?
small volume of urine?

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