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When LH is secreted by ovaries it eventually causes the follicle to burst, which is called what?
2nd Messenger of Peptide hormone
intracellular molecule that relays signals from hormone-receptor complex into the cell
light-sensitive gland that regulates timing of sexual activity in mammals, secretes melatonin, and regulates circadian rhythms
______ develops if Beta cells don't produce enough insulin of if target tissues don't respond to insulin
physiological process by which oxygen moves into internal environment and carbon dioxide moves out
20% .21/160 mm HG
79% 600 mm Hg
Oxygen __% in air and partial press___/____
Nitrogen __% in air and partial press ___
Carbon Dioxide __% in air and partial press ___
O2 concentration inside cell tends to be low/high?
CO2 concentrations inside cell tends to be low/high?
under the right conditions...O2 will diffuse in/out cells and CO2 will diffuse in/out of cells
moist thin different
in order for diffusion to take place...
cell surfaces must be ______
membrane must be ______
O2 and CO2 concentrations must be _____ across membrane
inelastic vascular air sacs
Avian (bird) lungs are
________ - don't move a lot
________ - have a lot of blood flow
________ - added accessories for respiration
nasal/oral, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole, alveoli
order of the mammalian respiratory tract
dead end sacs at the end of bronchiole of mammalian lungs where actual exchange of gases takes place
Hemoglobin has great affinity for oxygen at high/low partial pressure in capillaries?
Hemoglobin has lower affinity for oxygen in tissues where there's a high/low partial pressure
# of red blood cells and increase their heart and lung size
individuals living at higher altitudes increase what two things?
carbon monoxide nitrates/nitrites
what is produced when molecules bind strongly to hemoglobin making it unavailable for transport of O2?
extended life span of C.Elegans. Drosophila by...
extended life span of D. melanogaster by...
mouth pharynx esophagus stomach liver gallbladder pancreas small intestine large intestine rectum anus
major components of the digestive system
lipids nucleic acids carbohydrates proteins
major classes of molecules in food
___ -built up from triglycerides
___ - sugar/phosphate backbone; bases
___ - based on sugars C, H, and O
___ - built up from amino acids contain N
mouth amylases disaccharides chiton cellulose
Digestion of Carbohydrates
Enzymes in saliva?
Cannot be digested by vertebrate enzymes
stomach pepsin trypsin chymotrypsin carboxy- and amino-peptidases
Digestion of Proteins
____ - cleaves proteins into small peptides
in small intestine.. cleavage is continued by (3)
small intestine bile cholesterol lipases
Digestion if Lipids
liver secretes ___ into gall bladder
bile derives from _____
Emulsified fats can be digested by ____
carbohydrates proteins fats
______ used for energy
______ building, repair structures
______ insulation, some vitamins, linoleic acid
any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond basic nutrition function of supplying nutrients0-
ammonia uric acids urea
Chemistry of Waste
aquatic animals generate _____
birds, lizards, terrestrial arthropods _____
Mammals generate _____
renal capsules outer renal cortex inner renal medulla renal pelvis ureter nephron
structure of kidney
______ surround kidneys
______ collects urine and funnels it to _____
basic unit = _______
cup-like sac at end of nephron that filters blood to urine; contains many capillaries
in bloodstream inside tubule of nephron in extracellular space
abstracting the system
3 compartments = ___ ___ ___
each day ___ liters of filtrate flows out of glomeruli into tubules
______ liters or urine excreted
regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine.
feedbacks kidney to hypothalamus
from hairpin bend to distal tubule
hormonal action is triggered by _____ from ___ to ___
concentrating urine more
in collecting tubules of nephron
water is removed from filtrate causing what?
posterior pituitary collecting ducts makes walls more permeable to water and urine more concentrated posterior pituitary injury and diabetes
secreted by ______
acts on ________; what does it do? (2)
loss of ADH leads to what? (2)
adrenal glands sodium decreases renin
secreted by ______
stimulates _________ from extracellular spaces
If too much NA+ is lost from the body, extracellular fluid volume increase/decrease causing wall of glomerulus to secrete _____
precursor protein is in ____
increased angiotensin increases ____ reabsorption
glomerulus renin increases sodium blood pressure kidney failure 140/90
Failure of Aldosterone feedback system
when blood flow through glomerulus decreases...
____ secretes _____
Aldosterone secretion increase/decrease?
____ retained in the body
_____ goes up
High blood pressure leads to _____
avoid blood pressure > ___/___
diffusion simple filtering tubes malpighian tubules
Elimination of waste
one-celled organisms - ____
flatworms - ____
insects - ___
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