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Ch. 17 History of Life
Terms in this set (39)
Sedimentary rock is formed from
wind ,exposure to rain, and heat breaks down existing rock into small particles
Which of the following conditions would likely prevent the assembly and survival of new kinds of organic molecules on Earth today?
The presence of bacteria and other life forms
One scientific hypothesis about the origin of life holds that
RNA existed before DNA
To be used as an index fossil, as species must have existed for a
short period over a wide geographical range
Proteinoid microspheres are tiny bubbles that resemble cells because they
have selectively permeable membranes
How would you date a sample of rock that you suspect as being one of the earliest on earth?
use a radioactive isotope with a long half-life
One way master control genes, or hox genes, could have affected evolution is
Through small changes during embryonic development that led to different body plan
What must be true about an index fossil whose absolute age is used as a reference for other fossils?
The index fossils must be the same age as the other fossils.
What characteristic of early autotrophs gave them an advantage over early heterotrophs?
they made their own food
Early in Earth's history, while the planet was in a melted state, the most dense elements formed Earth's?
The endosymbiont theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from
communities formed by prokaryotes
According to fossil evidence, whales evolved from 4-legged ancestors. the modern baleen whale has fore limbs, but inspection of its skeleton reveals only tiny vestigial hind limbs. what is the best explanation for this loss of hind limbs in the baleen whale?
Whales with shorter hind limbs swam faster than those with longer hind limbs
What does fossil evidence indicate about the order in which these three vertebrate evolved: a bony fish with a jaw, a jawless fish, and a fish with leg-like fins?
The fish with leglike fins was the last to evolve.
A single species that has evolved into several different forms that live in different ways has undergone.
In the past, mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species
By making new habitats available to them
A pattern in which species experience long, stable interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolutionary change is called
One necessary condition for the evolution of the first life on Earth was
To compare the relative age of fossils, scientists sometimes use an early recognized species called a(an)
Examples of fossils include preserved
eggs, skeletal remains, footprints, droppings
What was the response of the various groups of early organisms the various groups of early organisms that existed when oxygen levels rose in the atmosphere?
1. Some life forms became extinct
2 Some life forms survived only in a few airless habitats
Modern experiments similar to Miller and Urey's demonstrate that simulating conditions thought to exist on early Earth can produce
Some bases contained in RNA
Which of the following functions ca RNA perform under certain conditions
1. Catalyze chemical reactions
2. Process mRNA after transcription
What do proteinoid microspheres have in common with cells?
1. Store and release energy
2.Have selectively permeable membranes
Dinosaur species dominated Earth for over 100 million year. During this time, most mammals were small mouse-sized nocturnal organisms. Following the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, the small mammals rapidly diversified to fill available habitats and niches. what pattern of evolution best explains the diversification of mammals?
What prevents organic molecules from forming on their own and remaining intact today?
Atmospheric oxygen is too reactive
In addition to hydrogen, the gases used in Miller ad Urey's experiment were.
Methane and Ammonia
Horse skeleton fossils indicate that the size of horses increased over time. Which statement best explains this fossil record?
Larger horses produced a slightly greater number of surviving offspring
The process by which tow species, for example, a flower and a pollinating insect, evolve in response to each other is called
Miller and Urey's experiments attempted to demonstrate
Whether organic molecules have formed before life was present
Why did oceans not exist on Earth nearly 4 billion years ago?
Water remained gas - very hot
When oxygen was first released in the early seas, it combined with iron to form
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey's experiment recreated Earth's hypothetical early atmosphere. What as their conclusion?
Organic molecules could form from inorganic substances
Most fossils form in
Two gases that probably existed in Earth's early atmosphere are
Hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide
The length of time requires for half f the radioactive atoms in a sample to decays is
Its half life
What proportion of all species that have ever lived has become extinct?
More than 99%
The fossil record shows that
1. Most organisms that have ever lived on Earth re now extinct
2.Fossils occur in a particular order
3, modern organisms have unicellular organisms
What facts about mitochondria and chloroplasts constitute(s) support for the endosymbiont theory?
Their ribosomes resemble bacteria ribosomes
The first organisms on Earth were most like today's
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