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1. Commensal Flora
Terms in this set (19)
Where can commensal flora be found in the body?
- Mouth/Nasal passages (Pharynx)
- GI tract
- Respiratory tract
- Urogenital tract
"Edward And Coralie Make Igloos". What does this mean?
What properties of skin make it prevent the colonisation and invasion of pathogens?
- Dryness of skin (no moisture to aid in flow/life)
- Aciditiy of skin (Low-medium pH not favourable)
- Rapid cell turnover (Skin cells shed)
- Resident microflora ("take up space")
- High salt content (Lowers osmotic potential)
What do Sebaceous glands do and how does this aid in antimicrobial activity?
Produce sebcum which is an antifungal/bacterial chemical
What does MALT stand for?
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
Name some examples of MALTs.
- SALT: Skin-associated lymphoid tissue
- GALT: Gut-associated lymphoid tissue
- LALT: Larynx- associated lymphoid tissue
- CALT: Conjunctival- associated lymphoid tissue
- NALT: Nasal- associated lymphoid tissue
What are MALTs?
Diffuse systems of small concentrations of lymphoid tissues which contain lymphocytes such as T, B and plasma cells. Also contain macrophages.
What is the function of MALTs?
Prevent access of bacteria to bloodstream
How does SALT function as a MALT?
- Maintain acidity
- Produce cytokines
- Ingesting bacteria (macrophages)
- Physical barrier against pathogens
What 5 properties of mucosal membranes have in defending against pathogens?
- Muscous secretion
- Immunglobulin A secretion
- Lysozyme production
- Lactoferrin production
- Lactoperoxidase production
Where is the lacrimal excretory system?
What is the function of IgA?
Prevent adherence by binding bacterial proteins and toxins
What is the function of Lactoferrin?
Targets and removes iron which is needed for microbial division
What defenses do the eyes have against pathogens?
- Blink reflex: moves debris/particles towards lacrimal excretory system
- Tears: flushing out particles
- Produces: lysozymes/IgA/lactoferrin
What defenses does the mouth/nasopharynx have against pathogens?
- Flow of saliva/mucosa
- Sneeze reflex: flushing out of particles
- Resident microflora (stop further colonisation)
- Cilia (wafting mucosa)
What defenses does the intestinal tract have against pathogens?
- Acidic properties
- Proteolytic enzymes
- Bile salts
- Rapid flow
- Rapid cell turnover
How does the immune system differentiate between commensals and pathogens?
MAMPS (microbial-associated molecular patterns)
Name some example species of commensal flora.
- Steptococcus spp
- Staphylococcus spp
- Lactobacillus spp
- Fusobacterium spp
What factors affect microbial growth?
- Immune system
- Oral hygiene
- Flow rate
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
2. Oral Microbiology
3. Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAIs)
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