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62 terms

Islam Vocabulary

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Allah
the Arabic word for God
Allahu akbar
"Allah is most great" or "God is greater than"/ a part of the daily call to prayer sounded from minarets around the world
arabesque
Islamic art/geometric patterns that are repeated over and over
assalamu alaykum
a greeting meaning "peace" when Muslims meet each other
astrolabe
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Ayatollah
a Shiite who is learned in the Shariah, the Koran, and the Hadith; and is known for their piety
bazaar
a covered market
Bedouin
wandering/nomadic Arab tribes
caliph
the title of the successor to Muhammad
chador
long, black robe worn by Iranian women
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
dowry
a payment (gift) of money or property to the bride
Fatihah
The first chapter of the Quran. This prayer, which asks God for guidance to follow "the straight path," is repeated by Muslims each day during the five required prayers
Fatwa
a legal ruling within Islam
Hadith
the literal translation means "story"; traditional teachings based on Muhammad's words and actions; these traditions are traced to eyewitness accounts
hafiz
means someone who has memorized the Koran in its entirety and is capable of reciting it
hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the Five Pillars of Islam
harem
separate women's quarters in a traditional Muslim home
hijab
means covering the head and body in accordance with God's instructions
hijrah
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in A. D. 622; this event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar
Iblis
The name for Satan in the Quran. Like the devil in Christian theology, he tempts human beings and seeks to thwart God's divine purpose in history
imam
Muslim prayer leader
iman
word meaning faith
Islam
the religion practiced by Muslims; Islam means "submission to the will of God"
jihad
the obligation of Muslims to struggle or exert themselves "in the way of God ; doesn't necessarily refer to an armed struggle
Kaaba
literally a "cube"/shrine in Mecca; Muhammad cleansed the Kaaba of idols
Kibbutzim
farms in Israel where groups of Jewish families live and work together
madrasas
Islamic schools
majlis
council of Muslim men
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
Medina
the second holiest city; where Muhammad lived after fleeing Mecca
mihrab
an alcove in a mosque that points toward Mecca
minaret
the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day
monotheistic
the belief in one God
mosque
building used by Muslims for religious services
Mount Hira
where Muhammad received his first revelation
muezzin
person who calls Muslims for religious services
Muhammad
the founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, Muhammad is the ultimate and final prophet
muskaad
separate men's quarters in a traditional Muslim home
Muslim
a person who believes the teachings of Islam
nabi
prophet
oasis
fertile or green areas within a desert
polygamy
a marriage between a man and more than one woman; is seen as an exception, not as a rule, within Islam
proselytizing
to convert someone else to your religion
purdah
the traditional Middle Eastern custom of seclusion for women
Quran (Koran)
the name for the holy book of Islam; meaning "recital"
Ramadan
ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting
sahn
an open courtyard
shahaada
public profession of faith; the first of the Five Pillars of Islam
sharav
hot, dry wind that blows across Israel
shariah
Muslim law code
sheikh
an Arab leader or chief
Shiite Muslim
accept only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam
Sunni Muslim
did not agree with Umayyad rule but accepted the Umayyads as rulers
sultan
a title that means the "holder of power"/ Turkish leader
sura
A chapter of the Quran. This word literally means "fence" or "enclosure". There are 114 surahs in the Quran, arranged in the order of descending length
Tawid
means the oneness or singularity of God. To reject it is to reject Islam.
thobe
long, white garment worn by men in Saudi Arabia
ummah
the worldwide community of Muslim believers
vizier
a prime minister that advises the caliph
Wailing Wall
Jewish holy site in Jerusalem that is the only remaining portion of Solomon's temple
Wassalam
"And Peace" (used as "farewell" or "goodbye" in English)