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99 terms

Life Span Development 11/11

Bronfenbrenners Bioecological Theory
Developmental model that takes into account the many levels of influence the environment can have on an individual. The model is made up of interacting systems.
Bronfenbrenners interacting systems are?
1. Microsystem
2. Mesosystem
3. Exosystem
4. Macrosystem
immediate environment - family, school, peers, day care, church etc.
modifies relationships between the groups within the microsystem. ex. child's interactions with teachers may affect interactions with parents.
Includes setting that children may not directly interact with but that influence the child nonetheless. ex. a teacher's family life will influence the teacher and thereby the child as well.
includes attitudes and ideologies of culture. customs and character of larger culture that help shape the microsystems. ex. cultural attitudes and laws regarding education of exceptional students influence the schools operations around how they go about providing education.
Attachment Theory
According to BOWLBY the infant and his/her primary caregiver(s) participate in an interactive system that has evolved to keep the infant safe and ensure survival. As the infant changes cognitively and emotionally, an affectional bond with caregiver emerges in stages, with full fledged attachment likely around 7-8 months.
Bowlby's Stages of Attachment
1. Preattachment phase
2. "Attachment-in-the-making" phase
3."Clear-cut attachment" phase
4. The reciprocal relationship phase
Preattachment Phase
birth to 6 weeks
infants remain in close contact with caregiver(s) and do not seem to get upset when left alone with a stranger
"Attachment-in-the-Making" Phase
6 weeks to 6-8 months
Infants begin to respond differently to familiar and unfamiliar people people, by the time they are 6-7mos, they start showing clear preference for their familiar caregivers, as well as, signs of wariness when confronted with unfamiliar objects or people.
The "clear-cut attachment" Phase
6-8 months to 18-24 months
During this period mother become a "secure base," Also development of full blown "separation anxiety." Once this stage is reached it regulates the physical and emotional between the child and those to whom they are attached. Whenever distance between the two become two great one or both with become upset.
Secure Base
Characteristic of Bowlby's third stage of attachment. Babies begin making exploratory excursions and to which they come back every so often to renew contact before returning to their explorations.
Separation Anxiety
Characteristic of Bowlby's third stage of attachment. Babies become visably upset when mother or caregiver leaves the room.
The "reciprocal relationship" Phase
18 to 24 months and older
As the child becomes more mobile and spends increasingly more time away from mother, the pair enter into a more reciprocal relationship. Sharing responsibility for maintaining the equilibrium of the attachment system. Will check in with each other occasionally when engaged in separate activities.
Bowlby's Internal Working Model
Mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences and that they see to guide their interactions with caregiver and others.
Ainsworth's Types of Attachments
1. Secure Attachment
2. Avoidant Attachment
3. Resistant Attachment
4. Disorganized Attachment
Secure Attachment
A pattern of attachment in which children play comfortably and react + to stranger as long as their mother is present. They become upset when mother leave and are unlikely to be consoled by a stranger, will calm as soon as mother returns.
Avoidant Attachment
pattern in which infants are indifferent to where their mother is sitting, may or may not cry when their mother leaves. Are likely to be comforted by strangers as by their mother. Indifferent when their mother returns to the room.
Resistant Attachment
infants stay close to their mothers and appear anxious even when their mother is near. They become very upset when their mother leaves but are not comforted when she returns. May have arms outstretched then struggle to get free once mother tries to comfort them. Do not readily resume play, keep an eye on mother. 12% of middle class children in U.S. are in this group.
Disorganized Attachment
Insecure attachment pattern in which infants seem to lack coherent method for dealing with stress. They may behave in contradictory ways, such as screaming for their mother and then moving away once she nears. In extreme cases, child may appear to be dazed and refuse to move while mother is in their presence.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
his ideas presented as a counterpoint to Piaget's; as if they are in opposing camps; wasn't about 'stages' ;Focused on themes that provide a different perspective on development; Best known for emphasis on critical role that culture or society plays in the transmission of knowledge. Which is why his is called "sociocultural" theory
Tools or signs
anything that people used to help them think and learn, such as numbering or writing systems. The most important tool for V. was language. Vygotsky stressed that human thinking is mediated by the tools we use
Cultural & Historical Mediation
signs are shaped & developed by others. I.e. telemarketing stems from the tool television, which is socially constructed. (Vygotsky)
Mediated learning
Vygotsky claimed that a child's use of tools or signs transforms thinking and shapes it into new kinds of thought. This idea is central to V's theory, is similar to Piaget's concepts of assimilation & accommodation; but V's focus is squarely on 'child-in-context'.
More on V's Sociocultural Theory
B/c children acquire and use tools that are the products of others' thinking, 'the mind is no longer located entirely inside the head' but is part of a collective experience. Vygotsky. went a step beyond Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model and believed individual could never really be separated from his/her environment or culture.
a tool needed to get formal concepts or scientific ones. Used to mediate a child's own thinking. This is what Vygotsky saw as our most important tool
Scientific concepts
culturally defined concepts. Theme in Vygotsky's Sociocultural theory is that progress or improvement in thinking is both possible and desirable. Press towards advanced levels of thinking good for both individual and society.
More advanced thinkers or more capable members of a culture provide novice learners with this- which enables novices to reach higher levels of thinking. Serves as a temporary prop. Current research supports the notion of it's importance in learning.
Zone of Proximal development
One of Vygotsky's most influential ideas. Describes a situation where a learner is able to grasp a concept or perform some skill only w/ support or scaffolding from s/o else
Vygotsky's impact on Education
has had a major influence on Education b/c of applicability to teaching-learning process.
Developmental lines
two kinds account for cognitive develpmt, "sociohistoric" or cultural; "natural" or coming from within
Egocentric or Private Speech
serves a useful purpose in develpmt; construed as the precursor to problem-solving, planning ability, & self-control. Eventually becomes internalized and transforms into inner speech
Inner Speech
comes from egocentric or private speech, is the kind of internal dialogue that facilitates thinking.
Vygotsky's 3 stages in move from Private to Inner Speech
1)3 yr old running commentary. V believed this speech actually directs thoughts and keeps them focused on task at hand 2) 6 yr old private speech more subdued and idiosyncratic 3) by 8 yr old dialogue is internalized completely/no longer audible
Emotional Regulation
one of the cornerstones of emotional well-being & positive adjustment throughout life span. Encompasses strategies & behaviors we use to moderate emo experiences to meet demands of diff situations or to achieve our goals. Emo of newborn poorly regulated, but show growing capacity to regulate emo reactions as they age
Social Referencing
Infants use the emo info provided by caregivers to help them interpret situations that are ambiguous to them
Emotional Regulation for infants
use social referencing but also have natural inborn coping strategies; both other-directed and self-directed.
Still-face paradigm
The dynamics of social engagement & frustration, distress and coping are stunningly apparent in this research technique
Other directed coping behaviors
In still-face paradigm research technique, mother changes responsiveness to non-responding. When infant observes this change, he first responds by this, using facial expressions, movements, & verbalizations designed to get mom to resume interaction.
Self directed coping behaviors
If mom still fails to engage after other-directed coping mechanism is employed, the baby's distress heightens and s/he resorts to this, designed for self-comfort. Babies look away and may even self-stimulate by rocking, sucking, etc.
Interactive repair
a positive movement that allows infant to come to depend on his caregiver for help as well as shape his own sense of effectiveness as a social agent. Ultimately, infant's other-directed coping strategies enhance communication & promote engagement w/ external environment, helping babies learn to be content most of time.
self system
includes aspects related to the self, such as self-concept, self-regulation and self-esteem. Interactions with others help construct the self-system (Chris Cooley)
self esteem
Ones evaluation of personal attributes or the positive or negative valence associated w/ those attributes.
the looking-glass self (3 steps of)
Cooley's famous metaphor re: self-development process: as originating from observing the reflected appraisals of others, primarily attachment figures. 3 steps: we first imagine how we must appear to other on certain dimension (i.e. intelligence) Then we interpret or imagine how they evaluate us on that dimension, last, we experience an emotional response to that perceived evaluation.
the active agent, the knower (William James)
Me/self concept
the part of self that experiences a sense of subjective self-awareness. Part of the self as the self-concept. The object of self or other's observations, the part that is known. (William James)
SC describes personal attributes
Representations of interactions (RIGs)
the regularity with which caregiver is available and sensitive or unavail and insensitive is stored in memory in what Stern calls _____. These are preverbal, unconscious, a kind of sensorimotor memory.
Self of 8-10 mo.
Infants display separation anxiety, signaling the formation of attachment to primary caregiver. Demonstrates infant's recognition of caregiver as separate from self. Bowlby-attachmt gives rise to security/optimism Erikson-burgeoning sense of trust in others & early sense of self-worth.
social referencing
the baby's adjustment of reactions depending on feedback provided by a caregiver
Pre-self 0-6 months (self development phase 1)
(0-6 mo.) early inklings of permanence of one's body, its separateness from others, and the rhythms of interpersonal connections. Infants have a capacity for imitation, which is seen as precursors of older child's ability to draw parallels btwn her own and another person's mind or feelings.
6-12 months Intentional Self or "I" (self development phase 2)
Intentional signaling of caregiver social referencing, shared referents; beginning self-efficacy using caregiver as secure base (beginning self-worth and trust)
12-24 months Objective Self or "Me" (self development phase 3)
self-recognition, early self-control, early self-esteem (feelings of autonomy)
24-60 months Self-Monitoring Self (self development phase 4)
Self-description, self-conscious emotions; self-regulation
a benchmark event occurring in self-development around 18 mo. occurs btwn 15-24 mo. A clear signal that infant has begun to formulate a conscious concept of self.
pro-White bias found in preschool minority kids
young children tend to perceive White dolls as having more positive attributes- but this bias may coexist w/ high levels of personal self-esteem. Minority groups thus may be more attuned to society's valuing White culture w/o necessarily devaluing themselves or their cultural heritage
Self-control (behavior regulation)
An important dimension of developing self-system:
describing a child's ability to stop from performing a forbidden act (i.e. pulling hand away from cookie jar when told no); as well as ability to make self perform unwanted acts (giving Aunt Matilda kiss on cheek)
a more advanced and flexible version of self-control
emotion regulation
underlies any ability to control behaviors. Good caregiving in infancy and beyond involves scaffolding child's developing ability to regulate both emotional and behavioral expression
Behavior Regulation
depends on 2 major cognitive and emotional advances that emerge in tandem w/ objective self-awareness & recognition: representational thought and emotional response in wrongdoing.
self-conscious emotions
shame, embarrassment, guilt, pride. these emos starts to show late in 2nd year of life after self-recognition has been attained
The Authoritative Style
Parents are both highly responsive and highly demanding; this has best, most positive results for kids, promoting autonomy & supporting assertiveness and individuality. Expectations are clear and come with explanations beyond 'because I said so' to help kids understand. Strong on behavioral control but do not use psychological control
The Authoritarian Style
parents low on responsiveness, but highly demanding. Not a positive emo climate nor encourages kids' individualism or assertiveness. Communicate less effective than authoritative, more one-sided (I say what will happen you listen) less affection, more restrictive.
The Permissive Style
moderate to highly responsive to kids, low on demandingness. More nurturing and affectionate than authoritarian, not as much as Authoritative
The Neglecting-Uninvolved Style
parents seem to neglect their responsibility to socialize the child, but they also express less affection and are not likely to be responsive to their kids' needs...may be hostile towards them or make negative attributes. When they do impose limits it is w/ power assertive techniques and little explanation.
Child outcomes of Parenting Style
Authoriative kids associate w/ + outcomes: adaptability, competence, achievement, good social skills peer acceptance low levels of antisocial/aggressive beh. Kids of Authoriarian parents likely to be irritable & conflicted conforming w/ authority figures but not socially skillful, likely to be bullied. Tend to have low self-esteem may lack self-regulation when authorities not monitoring. Permissive kids likely to exhibit uncontrolled beh and low levels of self-reliance. High on aggression. Neglecting-uninvolved tend to be impulsive, aggressive, depression/low self-esteem.
Social cognition
the understanding of the social world
Social relations are important to child why?
To gain experience in learning about others' pov. Contribute to sense of security & connectedness. Foster devlpmt of self-concept
Perspective taking
when a person puts herself in another person's shoes and considers her own actions in the light of that alternative perspective. Lies at the heart of self-recognition & self-knowledge. Piaget believes this begins in elementary school or b4 in early classroom
1st Stage in develpmt of perspective taking
3-6 yrs. Shared Experience: Unreflective imitation or enmeshment Social Perspective taking: Undifferentiated/Egocentric (interpersonal negotiation strategies: physical force; fight or flight)
2nd Stage in develpmt of perspective taking
5-9 yrs. Shared Experience: Unreflective sharing of expressive enthusiasm Social Perspective taking: Differentiated/Subjective (interpersonal negotiation strategies: One way, unilateral power, orders or obedience)
3rd Stage in develpmt of perspective taking
8-12 yrs. Shared Experience: Reflective sharing of similar perceptions or experiences Social Perspective taking: Reciprocal/self-reflective (interpersonal negotiation strategies: Cooperative exchange; reciprocity, persuasion or deference)
4th Stage in develpmt of perspective taking
10-15 yrs. Shared Experience: Empathetic sharing of beliefs, values Social Perspective taking: Mutual/third-person (interpersonal negotiation strategies: Mutual compromise)
5th Stage in develpmt of perspective taking
late teen/adult Shared Experience:interdependent sharing of vulnerabilities & self Social Perspective taking: Intimate/in-depth/societal (interpersonal negotiation strategies: collaborative/commitment)
William James' belief re: self esteem
self esteem dependent on the ratio of our successes to our aspirations
Global self esteem heavily dependent on what?
Competence in areas of personal importance
Cooley emphasized importance of ______ on appraisals of competence?
Social influences
Self-perceptions can be based on what?
the internalization of approval or disapproval of others in the social network.
Social Comparison
people observe the performance of others and use it as a basis for evaluating their own abilities & accomplishments
Self-enhancing bias
considered a good thing in most cases, most peops are motivated to maintain + beliefs about themselves
"downward" social comparisons
comparing self to less competent or successful peers when own self-esteem is at stake. Protects child from negative self-evaluations
The higher the level of competence in important domains and the greater the level of social support, the higher the level of _________ is overall.
self esteem
Children's self-concept can be divided into 2 main domains:
academic & non-academic self-concepts
Academic self-concept
further divided into subject areas: English, Math Science SS, art, etc.
Non-academic self-concept
divided into social, emotional, & physical self concepts; physical divided into physical ability and physical appearance. (also may include peer and parental relationships, by adolescence romantic relationships as well)
Seltzer's term for profound changes in adolescents which produe a state of instability and anxiety unique to that age group.
Seltzer expanded on erikson's ideas by specifying.....?
how and why the peer group plays such a central role in construction of identity at adolecence.
Seltzer (1982) argues that peers in large part provide the arena for identity formation. She also describes....
the Eriksonian ideal of unrestricted sampling of various "identities" as a normative process, but in reality what adolescents are able to do may be more circumscribed. However, the structure of the peer culture may CONSTRAIN the opportunity to try on some characteristics and behaviors.
Once a member, a teen's sampling of elements of behavior will be limited to some extent by WHAT? Few would be surprised to find that adolescents are strongly influenced by WHOM? What is striking about the recent data on peer affiliation is how powerful _____ seems to be.
the crowd to which the teen belongs.
their closest friends
crowd membership
The classic interpretation of the role of parents of teens?
The young adolescent's emotional attachments become sexualized and need to be redirected to agemates. The child's press for autonomy creates conflict with the parents but is seen as normal and necessary.
Best 2 dimensions for parents of teens?
responsiveness and demandingness. (authoritative)
Erikson's Personality Theory
Erik Erikson developed eight psychological stages of personality development. Each stage has the individual faces a different "crisis" or developmental task. The first five are correspond to the age periods laid out by Freud. The last three are adult stages reflecting his view that personal identity and interpersonal attidudes continually evolve from birth to death.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Erikson's first stage of development from Birth to one year. Child develops a sense that the world is a safe and reliable place because of sensitive care giving. Positive outcome developed is hope and the negative is mistrust and fear of others.
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Erikson's second stage of development from one to three years of age. Child develops sense of independence tied to use of new mental or motor skills. Positive outcome developed is willpower and negative outcome is self-doubt.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Erikson's third stage of development from 3 to 5 or 6 years of age. Child tries to behave in ways that involve more "grown-up" responsibility and experiment with grown-up roles. Positive outcome developed is purpose and negative outcome is guilt over through & action.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage of development from 6 to 12 years of age. Child needs to learn important academic skills and compare favorably with peers in school. Positive outcome developed is competence and negative outcome is lack of competence.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Erikson's fifth stage of development from 12 to 20 years of age. Adolescent must move towards adulthood by making choices about values, vocational goals, etc. Positive outcome developed is fidelity and the negative outcome is the inability to establish a sense of self.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Erikson's sixth stage of development which covers young adulthood. Adult become willing to share identity with other and to commit to affiliations and partnerships. Positive outcome developed is love and the negative outcome is fear of intimacy as well as distantiation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage of development which covers middle adulthood. Adult wishes to make contribution to the next generation, to produce, mentor, create something of lasting value, as in the rearing of children or community services or expert work. Positive outcome developed is care and the negative outcome is self-absorption.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson's eighth stage of development which covers late adulthood. Adult comes to terms with life's successes, failures, and missed opportunities and realizes the dignity of own life. Positive outcome developed is wisdom and negative outcome is regret.