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78 terms

Psych Exam 3

STUDY
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Amygdala
Brain area involved in controlling fear
Brainstem (hypothalamus and amygdala)
Control muscle movements with aggression
Serotonin
Decrease in this neurotransmitters activity leads to more aggressive behavior
Ventomedial Prefrontal Cortex
Damage to this area has a correlation with lack of real world competency (aggression section)
Personal
People with damage to the vmPFC are more likely to say they would act in the ______ moral story than others (throwing an injured person overboard to stop a boat from sinking)
Innate
Emotions are innmate/learned?
Are
Emotions are/are not the same across cultures? (Can isolated people recognize facial expressions?)
More
Emotions are ,more/less intense in a group setting?
Japanese, American
__________ people are more emotional when watching a movie alone than with people they don't know whereas ________ are the opposite
Right, left
____ hemisphere plays a more important role in recognition of emotion than ____
facial expressions, tone
Lesions on the amygdala affect ability to recognize emotion in ________ but not the ability to recognize emotion in ____
Somasensory cortex
Damage to the _______ is correlated with difficulty in recognizing and identifying facial expressions and emotions
does
The feeling of making an expression does/does not help us identify facial expressions?
facial feedback hypothesis
Hypothesis that physical state can effect mood (people holding a pen b/w their teeth rated cartoons as funnier than those who did not)
James-Lange Theory
Theory- a persons physical state provides cues for us to identify emotion (Awareness of our physical state leads to identifying a subjective feeling)
James-Lange Theory
Theory: Men standing on a dangerous bridge with an attractive woman made up more sexual stories and were 4x more likely to call her (misattribution of physical state)
Cannon-Bard Theory
Theory: Both subjective and physical responses occur simultaneously and independently
Schachter-Singer Theory
Theory: Assumes that emotions result from a sequence of events (stimulus produces arousal, make a consciousappraisal of circumstances, allows identification of feelings)
Schachter-Singer Theory
Theory: People received a shot of epinephrine and were approached by an angry or silly person, people who did not know they got the injection became either happy or silly while people who knew they were injected had no response
Hemorrhagic stroke
Stroke caused by bleeding in the brain
Stroke
A disorder that occurs when the brain's blood supply is interrupted by bleeding or blockage
Aneurysm
A balloon like bulge in the wall of an artery that can rupture and result in accumulation in the brain tissue (stroke)
Aneurysm
Disorders cause: a malformed or weakened blood vessel in the brain, high blood pressure
Hemorrhagic stroke
Treatment: shunt or agents to thicken blood
shunt
implant consisting of a tube made of plastic or rubber for treating stroke
Obstructive stroke
A disorder that is caused by an occlusion of a blood vessel
Embolus
a piece of material that forms in one part of the vascular system then dislodges and travels where it prevents blood flow (stroke)
Thrombus
blood clot that forms within a vessel and may completely block blood flow (stroke)
Ischemia
loss of blood flow to a region in the body (stroke)
Excitotoxicity, glutamate
_____ is cell death due to excess excitation of ______ during stroke
Clot busters
Stroke treatment: drugs that dissolve blood clots, effective within 3 hours, causes severe brain damage and increases excitotoxicity
DSPA
Stroke treatment: anticoagulant that prevents blood clotting, restored blood flow and reduced symptoms within 9 hours
Recovery of function
Stroke treatment: Brain naturally recreated neural connections
Therapy
Stroke treatment: exercise and sensory stimulation
Constraint-induced Therapy
Stroke treatment: forces patient to use effected limb
Autism
Disorder: Problems with non-verbal communication, delayed learning to talk if at all, preoccupation with certain things, need a routine
Cerebral cortex
Main brain area involved in autism
Autism
Basal ganglia, amygdala, frontal cortex involved in what?
Autism
Tratment includes medications with anxiety, depression, and hyperactivity as well as therapies (occupational, physical, speech, play)
dopaminergic system
Area involved in ADHD
ADHD
Treatment includes drugs (dopamine transport blockers/stimulants) and behavioral treatments (relaxation, CBT)
PTSD
Hippocampus, amygdala thalamus/hypothalamus involved in this disorder
somatic control exercise
Treatment for PTSD: control breathing while revisiting past events
Exposure-based Therapy
Treatment for PTSD: gradually approach settings of traumatic events
Bipolar
Prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and hippocampus involved in this disorder
Bipolar
Treatment is lifelong involving mood stabilizers, psychotherapy, and possible hospitalization
Panic disorder
Prefrontal cortex and amygdala involved in this disorder
Panic disorder
Treatment involves benzodiapines and antidepressants, CBT (most effective), and exposure therapy
Huntingtons
Disorder characterized by behavioral disturbances, hallucinations, irritability, abnormal jerking movements, loss of memory, rigidity- ends with dementia
Huntingtons
Basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) involved in this disorder
Huntingtons
Treatment involves dopamine blockers, only slows down process
PKU
Developmental disorder- mental retardation, delayed social skills, small head size, hyperactivity, seizures, skin rash
PKU
Diagnosis- babies are tested shortly after birth to decide whether a strict diet is necessary
PKU
Treatment- low phenylalanine diet keeping blood levels low
PKU
Developmental disorder- excess phenylalanine in the blood intereferes with myelinization of neurons in the CNS (lack of enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine)
Down Syndrome
Developmental disorder- congenital disorder that results in abnormal development of the brain due to lack of an extra 21st chromosome
Down Syndrome
Physical symptoms: smaller than normal head size, upward slanting noise, excess skin on nape of neck, decreased muscle tone at birth, slow physical development
Down Syndrome
Mental symptoms: Delayed mental/social development, slowed learning, short attention span, impulsiveness
Down Sydrome
Comrbid symptoms: heart problems, dementia, impaired vision/hearing, gastrointestinal blockage, hip/joint problems, narrowing airway, underactive thyroid
Down Syndrome
Diagnosis- tested through amniocentesis sampling during first few months of pregnancy
Down Syndrome
Treatment- surgery/meds to treat comorbid symptoms, no treatment for mental and physical symptoms, behavioral training, speech and physical therapy
TSE
Fatal congenital disease brain disease whose degenerative process gives the brain a sponge like appearance
TSE
Caused by misfolding of proteins and in contact cause normal proteins to misform (kills cells) and transmitted by tissue
TSE
No cure, medication and therapycan control aggressive behavior, full tiem care after 6 months,death after 8 months
TSE
Rapidly developing dementia, motor problems, death
Parkinsons
muscle rigidity, slowness of movement, resting tremor, instability
Lewy bodies
abnormal circular structures found within the cytoplasm of SN neurons (Parkinsons)
Nigrostriatal, dopamine
Parkinsons is caused by degeneration of _______ system and _______ secreteing neurons from proteins
Parkinsons
No cure, goal is to control syptoms
L DOPA
Drug for parkinsons that increases dopamine levels, however DA eventually gets too low for this to help
Globus pallidus
Parkinsons treatment can involve brain lesions to this area which relieves motor symptoms
Alzheimers
Progressive loss of memory and other functions, dementia, eventually the person is helpless
amyloid plaques
extracellular deposits consist of a dense core of proteins surrounded by degenerating axons (Alzheimers)
neurofibrillary tangles
dying neurons that contain intracellular accumulation of tau proteins which block transportation w/i the cell(Alzheimers)
ACl
Nerotransmitter in basal forebrain are among the first to be destroyed in forebrain
Alzheimers
Hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, temporal lobes, locus coerleus, and raphe nuclei
ACh esterase inhibitors
Treatment for Alzheimers that leaves ACh in the synapse longer (neurons still die)
NDMA receptor agonist
Treatment for Alzheimers that produces a slight improvement in progression of dementia by slowing down the death of neurons due to excitotoxicity