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Brain area involved in controlling fear

Brainstem (hypothalamus and amygdala)

Control muscle movements with aggression


Decrease in this neurotransmitters activity leads to more aggressive behavior

Ventomedial Prefrontal Cortex

Damage to this area has a correlation with lack of real world competency (aggression section)


People with damage to the vmPFC are more likely to say they would act in the ______ moral story than others (throwing an injured person overboard to stop a boat from sinking)


Emotions are innmate/learned?


Emotions are/are not the same across cultures? (Can isolated people recognize facial expressions?)


Emotions are ,more/less intense in a group setting?

Japanese, American

__________ people are more emotional when watching a movie alone than with people they don't know whereas ________ are the opposite

Right, left

____ hemisphere plays a more important role in recognition of emotion than ____

facial expressions, tone

Lesions on the amygdala affect ability to recognize emotion in ________ but not the ability to recognize emotion in ____

Somasensory cortex

Damage to the _______ is correlated with difficulty in recognizing and identifying facial expressions and emotions


The feeling of making an expression does/does not help us identify facial expressions?

facial feedback hypothesis

Hypothesis that physical state can effect mood (people holding a pen b/w their teeth rated cartoons as funnier than those who did not)

James-Lange Theory

Theory- a persons physical state provides cues for us to identify emotion (Awareness of our physical state leads to identifying a subjective feeling)

James-Lange Theory

Theory: Men standing on a dangerous bridge with an attractive woman made up more sexual stories and were 4x more likely to call her (misattribution of physical state)

Cannon-Bard Theory

Theory: Both subjective and physical responses occur simultaneously and independently

Schachter-Singer Theory

Theory: Assumes that emotions result from a sequence of events (stimulus produces arousal, make a consciousappraisal of circumstances, allows identification of feelings)

Schachter-Singer Theory

Theory: People received a shot of epinephrine and were approached by an angry or silly person, people who did not know they got the injection became either happy or silly while people who knew they were injected had no response

Hemorrhagic stroke

Stroke caused by bleeding in the brain


A disorder that occurs when the brain's blood supply is interrupted by bleeding or blockage


A balloon like bulge in the wall of an artery that can rupture and result in accumulation in the brain tissue (stroke)


Disorders cause: a malformed or weakened blood vessel in the brain, high blood pressure

Hemorrhagic stroke

Treatment: shunt or agents to thicken blood


implant consisting of a tube made of plastic or rubber for treating stroke

Obstructive stroke

A disorder that is caused by an occlusion of a blood vessel


a piece of material that forms in one part of the vascular system then dislodges and travels where it prevents blood flow (stroke)


blood clot that forms within a vessel and may completely block blood flow (stroke)


loss of blood flow to a region in the body (stroke)

Excitotoxicity, glutamate

_____ is cell death due to excess excitation of ______ during stroke

Clot busters

Stroke treatment: drugs that dissolve blood clots, effective within 3 hours, causes severe brain damage and increases excitotoxicity


Stroke treatment: anticoagulant that prevents blood clotting, restored blood flow and reduced symptoms within 9 hours

Recovery of function

Stroke treatment: Brain naturally recreated neural connections


Stroke treatment: exercise and sensory stimulation

Constraint-induced Therapy

Stroke treatment: forces patient to use effected limb


Disorder: Problems with non-verbal communication, delayed learning to talk if at all, preoccupation with certain things, need a routine

Cerebral cortex

Main brain area involved in autism


Basal ganglia, amygdala, frontal cortex involved in what?


Tratment includes medications with anxiety, depression, and hyperactivity as well as therapies (occupational, physical, speech, play)

dopaminergic system

Area involved in ADHD


Treatment includes drugs (dopamine transport blockers/stimulants) and behavioral treatments (relaxation, CBT)


Hippocampus, amygdala thalamus/hypothalamus involved in this disorder

somatic control exercise

Treatment for PTSD: control breathing while revisiting past events

Exposure-based Therapy

Treatment for PTSD: gradually approach settings of traumatic events


Prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and hippocampus involved in this disorder


Treatment is lifelong involving mood stabilizers, psychotherapy, and possible hospitalization

Panic disorder

Prefrontal cortex and amygdala involved in this disorder

Panic disorder

Treatment involves benzodiapines and antidepressants, CBT (most effective), and exposure therapy


Disorder characterized by behavioral disturbances, hallucinations, irritability, abnormal jerking movements, loss of memory, rigidity- ends with dementia


Basal ganglia (caudate and putamen) involved in this disorder


Treatment involves dopamine blockers, only slows down process


Developmental disorder- mental retardation, delayed social skills, small head size, hyperactivity, seizures, skin rash


Diagnosis- babies are tested shortly after birth to decide whether a strict diet is necessary


Treatment- low phenylalanine diet keeping blood levels low


Developmental disorder- excess phenylalanine in the blood intereferes with myelinization of neurons in the CNS (lack of enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine)

Down Syndrome

Developmental disorder- congenital disorder that results in abnormal development of the brain due to lack of an extra 21st chromosome

Down Syndrome

Physical symptoms: smaller than normal head size, upward slanting noise, excess skin on nape of neck, decreased muscle tone at birth, slow physical development

Down Syndrome

Mental symptoms: Delayed mental/social development, slowed learning, short attention span, impulsiveness

Down Sydrome

Comrbid symptoms: heart problems, dementia, impaired vision/hearing, gastrointestinal blockage, hip/joint problems, narrowing airway, underactive thyroid

Down Syndrome

Diagnosis- tested through amniocentesis sampling during first few months of pregnancy

Down Syndrome

Treatment- surgery/meds to treat comorbid symptoms, no treatment for mental and physical symptoms, behavioral training, speech and physical therapy


Fatal congenital disease brain disease whose degenerative process gives the brain a sponge like appearance


Caused by misfolding of proteins and in contact cause normal proteins to misform (kills cells) and transmitted by tissue


No cure, medication and therapycan control aggressive behavior, full tiem care after 6 months,death after 8 months


Rapidly developing dementia, motor problems, death


muscle rigidity, slowness of movement, resting tremor, instability

Lewy bodies

abnormal circular structures found within the cytoplasm of SN neurons (Parkinsons)

Nigrostriatal, dopamine

Parkinsons is caused by degeneration of _______ system and _______ secreteing neurons from proteins


No cure, goal is to control syptoms


Drug for parkinsons that increases dopamine levels, however DA eventually gets too low for this to help

Globus pallidus

Parkinsons treatment can involve brain lesions to this area which relieves motor symptoms


Progressive loss of memory and other functions, dementia, eventually the person is helpless

amyloid plaques

extracellular deposits consist of a dense core of proteins surrounded by degenerating axons (Alzheimers)

neurofibrillary tangles

dying neurons that contain intracellular accumulation of tau proteins which block transportation w/i the cell(Alzheimers)


Nerotransmitter in basal forebrain are among the first to be destroyed in forebrain


Hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, temporal lobes, locus coerleus, and raphe nuclei

ACh esterase inhibitors

Treatment for Alzheimers that leaves ACh in the synapse longer (neurons still die)

NDMA receptor agonist

Treatment for Alzheimers that produces a slight improvement in progression of dementia by slowing down the death of neurons due to excitotoxicity

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