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133 terms

US History Test 3

Balskus
STUDY
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Manifest Destiny
idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western land
Henry Clay
Whig Representative of Kentucky, he introduced a bill proposing the Second Bank of the United States, ran for President in 1844
James K. Polk
Democratic, Former congressman and governor of Tennessee, promised to annex Texas and Oregon and buy California from Mexico, ran for president in 1844, and won the election.
"54"40' or Fight"
Polk stated he wanted all of oregon to line 54 40 north latitude or they will fight
John Slidell
Polk sent him as a representative to Mexico City to try to purchase California
Zachary Taylor
led troops across the Nueces River (Mexico viewed this as an invasion)
John C. Fremont
led settlers in Northern California to start an uprising against Mexico
Bear Flag Republic
California declared independence from Mexico, and renamed their region this
Winfield Scott
member of the Whig party, his force landed at Veracruz and headed for Mexico City, battling the enemy along the way, they captured the capital
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Mexico gave up more than 500,000 square miles of territory to the United States
Wilmot Proviso
proposed that in any territory the United States gained from Mexico "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist"
Lewis Cass
proposed popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty
the citizens of each new territory should be allowed to decide for themselves if they wanted to permit slavery or not.
Conscience Whigs
opposed slavery and taylor
Cotton Whigs
supported slavery and taylor
Free-Soil Party
Conscience Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and abolitionists of the Liberty Party who joined together and opposed slavery in the "free soil" of western territories
"49ers"
80,000 that arrived in California to look for Gold
Compromise of 1850
proposed by clay, eased the tensions over the slavery in the south but not in the north, and what would happen to the new territories in the west; prevented civil war or succession.
John Calhoun
senator that defended the south saying if the Compromise of 1850 passed then the South would fall apart
Daniel Webster
senator of Massachusetts who supported clay's Compromise of 1850, calling on the senate to put national unity above sectional loyalties
Henry Clay
Senator of Kentucky proposed the Compromise of 1850 "The Great Compromiser"
Uncle Tom's Cabin
originally an anti-slavery newspaper that was published as a book, presented real people enslaved in dreadful circumstances, considered a cause of the civil war
Harriet Beecher Stowe
writer of Uncle Toms Cabin
Fugitive Slave Act
a person claiming that an African American had escaped from slavery had only to point out that person as a runaway to take him or her into custody.
"Civil Disobedience"
essay written by Thoreau justifying the Fugitive Slave Act
Underground Railroad
Informal but organized system which helped thousands of enslaved people escape
Harriet Tubman
runaway slave and Famous conductor of the Underground Railroad
Transcontinental railroad
built to connect the West Coast to the rest of the Country
Gadsden Purchase
30,000 square-mile strip of land in Arizona and New Mexico, which mexico accepted $10 million for the territory
Kansas-Nebraska Act
bill organized the Gadsden Purchase in to new territory called Nebraska
New England Emigrant Aid Society
an abolitionist group founded to recruit and outfit antislavery settlers bound for Kansas.
"Border Ruffians"
thousands of armed missourians that voted illegally in Kansas
Charles Sumner
Senator of Massachusetts, a fiery abolitionist, delivered a speech accusing pro-slavery senators of forcing Kansas into the ranks of slave state.
Andrew P. Butler
Senator of South Carolina, pro-slavery singled out in Charles Sumner's anti-slavery speech.
Preston Brooks
Brutally beat sumner with his cain for criticizing the South Carolina, his relative Butler, and the south.
Republican Party
people got angry about the Kansas-Nebraska act causing Whigs, members of the Free-soil party, and a few anti-slavery democrats to come together.
Know Nothings
anti-catholic and ant-immigrant group
John C. Fremont
a famous Western explorer nicknamed "The Pathfinder". Spoke in favor of Kansas becoming a free state
James Buchanan
he believed the best way to save the Union was to make concession to the South.
Dred Scott
enslaved man who Missouri slaveholder took him to live in free territory before returning to Missouri. Assisted by abolitionist, he sued to end his slavery, arguing that the time he had spent in free territory meant he was free.
Roger Taney
First Catholic Chief justice; ruled against scott because he claimed African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in the courts
Referendum
popular vote on the constitution
Abraham Lincoln
Republican who ran for the Senate against Stephen Douglas, later nominated to run president
Stephen Douglas
"The Little Giant" ran against Lincoln for the Senate
John Brown
abolitionist who believed "God had raised him up on purpose to break the laws of the wicked" tried to seize the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, and arm enslaved people
Harper's Ferry
federal arsenal, that was attacked by Brown
Insurrection
rebellion against slaveholders
John Breckenridge
vice president, Southern Democrats nominate him to run for president
William Seward
first republican nominee, not very popular so they switched to Lincoln
Constitutional Union Party
campaigned on a position of upholding both the Constitution and the Union
John Crittenden
proposed amendments to the constitution, one guaranteed slavery where it already existed, another reinstated missouri compromise line, Slavery prohibited north and protected south of line
Jefferson Davis
former Mississippi senator chosen to as president of the Confederacy
Confederacy
declared to be a new nation--the Confederate States of American
Ft. Sumter
Davis tried to take it, began the Civil War
Martial law
when the military takes control of an area and replaces civilian authorities, and it suspends certain civil rights
Robert E. Lee
one of the best senior officers in the united states army, offered commander of union, instead dropped out of army and joined confederacy
Tredegar Iron Works
southern factory capable of producing cannons
Legal Tender Act
created a national currency and allowed the government to issue paper money
War Democrats
strongly supported the conflict and hoped to restore the Union to the way it was before the war
Copperheads
peace Democrats
Habeas corpus
a person's rights not to be imprisoned person unless charged with a crime and given a trial
Alexander Stephens
Davis's vice president, who was against Davis because he suspended habeas corpus and forced people to join the army
Trent Affair
North captured Mason and Slidell and is forced to return them by GB
James Mason
sent from south to Britain
John Slidell
sent from south to France
Bayonets
long knives attacked to he front of their guns.
Conoidal bullets
cone shaped allowed rifles to be accurate at much greater ranges
Attrition
the wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers and resources
Anaconda Plan
Union blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi to divide the confederacy. Causing the South to run out of resources.
P.G. T. Beauregard
led confederate troops under his command gathered south 25 miles south of DC
Stonewall Jackson
Led reinforcement at Bull Run and was rallied behind; went on to become one of the most effective commanders in the Confederate Army
Irwin McDowell
Union commander who retreated at Bull Run
Blockade runners
small fast vessels the South used to Smuggle goods past the blockade, usually under the cover of night
Alabama & Florida
two of the most famous confederate raider warships
David G. Farragut
daringly led fleet upriver through Confederate Forts, who attacked them, all but 4 ships made it through
Ulysses S. Grant
Union general who began a campaign to seize control of two rivers: The Cumberland River, and the Tennessee River.
Shiloh
Grant is attacked off guard, he holds the line, and attacks offensively the next day causing the Confederates to retreat
Murfreesboro
battle ended inconclusively and after Union reinforcements arrived Bragg retreats
George B. McClellan
Lincoln orders him to lead Union in the east
Antietam
bloodiest one day battle in the war, and in American History
Emancipation Proclamation
a decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion
54th Massachusetts
Union regiment which fought valiantly at Fort Wagner near Charlestown Harbor, loosing nearly half of its soldiers
Florence Nightingale
Famous British nurse who inspired many women to take on many of the nursing tasks in army hospitals
Elizabeth Blackwell
first female physician in the US, started the nation's first training program for nurses.
U.S. Sanitary Commission
an organization that provided medical assistance and supplies to army camps and hospitals
Andersonville
most infamous prison prison in the South, in Georgia, open camp with no shade or shelter for its giant population
Henry Wirz
the commandment at Andersonville, became the only person executed for War Crimes during the civil war.
Vicksburg
the last major confederate stronghold on the river
Benjamin Grierson
took 1,700 troops on a cavalry raid through Mississippi, tearing up railroads, burning depots, and fighting skirmishes
Ambrose Burnside
Lincoln urged him to go south into Virginia and destroy Lee's Army.
Fredericksburg
Burnside ordered a series of bloody assaults against Lee here but it failed and the Union lost more than twice as many as the Confederates
Chancellorsville
Hooker attacked Lee here in the Wilderness, Lee outnumbered 2-1 Lee still defeated the Union
Joseph Hooker
Lincoln replaced burnside with him after he was embarrassed in Fredericksburg
George Meade
Lincoln replaced Hooker with him after Hooker failed at Chancellorsville
Pickett's Charge
mile-wide line of Confederate troops that marched across open farmland toward Cemetery ridge
Gettysburg Address
one of the best known orations in American History; talked about how all men are created equally
Chickamauga
Union forced the Confederates to evacuate here without a fight, all of a sudden Confederates attacked and surrounded the Union at Chattanooga
Chattanooga
Union forces came to back up the surrounded Northerners and drove the Confederates back
Wilderness
a densely forested area near Fredericksburg, Virginia
Cold Harbor
a strategic crossroads northeast of Richmond
Philip Sheridan
staged a cavalry raid north and west of Richmond to distract Lee's troops
William T. Sherman
lead the "March to the Sea"
March to the Sea
troops marched to destroy everything in Atlanta of military value, including railroads, warehouses, mills, factories, and machine shops. Fire spread burning down 1/3 of Atlanta.
Pillaged
looting everything around
Mandate
clear sign from the voters, to end slavery permanently by amending the Constitution
13th Amendment
Banned Slavery in the WHOLE United States
Appomattox Courthouse
here ragged and battered troops surrounded and outnumbered, Lee surrendered to Grant
John Wilkes Booth
assassinated Lincoln
Reconstruction
rebuilding after the war
Amnesty
pardon to all southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the United States and accepted the Unions proclamations concerning slavery
Thaddeus Stevens
Radical Rep of Pennsylvania, did not want to reconcile with the South
Charles Sumner
Radical Rep of Massachusetts, did not want to reconcile with the South
Wade-Davis Bill
required the majority of the adult white men in a former Confederate state to take an oath of allegiance to the Union
Pocket veto
to let the session of Congress expire without signing the legislation.
Freedman's Bureau
group given the task on feeding and clothing war refugees in the South using surplus army supplies
Andrew Johnson
Democrat living in Tennessee before the Civil War, became president after Lincoln was assassinated
Black Codes
varied from state to state which severely limited African Americans rights in the South
Fourteenth Amendment
granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and declared that no state could deprive a person of life, liberty, or property.
Military Reconstruction Act
divided the former Confederacy except for Tennessee, into five military Districts
Impeachment
charging with high crimes and misdemeanors in office
Fifteenth Amendment
right to vote should not be denied by race, color, or prior servitude
Carpetbaggers
Northerners that moved to the South, carried suitcases made of carpet fabric
Scalawags
an old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals
Graft
gaining money illegally through politics
Ku Klux Klan
southern secret society, who's goal was drive out the Union troops and carpetbaggers and regain control of the South for the Democratic Party
Ulysses S. Grant
Union Commander who led the North to victory in the Civil War
Sin Tax
tax on alcohol and tobacco, that helped pay off War bonds
Horace Greeley
ran against Grant to prevent his second term and still lost
Whiskey Ring
A group of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated the government out of millions of dollars by filing false tax reports.
Panic 1873
caused smaller banks to close and the stock market to plummet. Many Businesses shut down and many Americans out of work
Redeemers
Southern democrats who called on all whites to take back the South from "Black Republican" rule
Compromise of 1877
a promise by the Republicans to pull federal troops out of the South, if Hayes was elected.
Samuel Tilden
a wealthy corporate lawyer and former governor of New York who had tried to end the corruption in New York City's government.