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Manifest Destiny

idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western land

Henry Clay

Whig Representative of Kentucky, he introduced a bill proposing the Second Bank of the United States, ran for President in 1844

James K. Polk

Democratic, Former congressman and governor of Tennessee, promised to annex Texas and Oregon and buy California from Mexico, ran for president in 1844, and won the election.

"54"40' or Fight"

Polk stated he wanted all of oregon to line 54 40 north latitude or they will fight

John Slidell

Polk sent him as a representative to Mexico City to try to purchase California

Zachary Taylor

led troops across the Nueces River (Mexico viewed this as an invasion)

John C. Fremont

led settlers in Northern California to start an uprising against Mexico

Bear Flag Republic

California declared independence from Mexico, and renamed their region this

Winfield Scott

member of the Whig party, his force landed at Veracruz and headed for Mexico City, battling the enemy along the way, they captured the capital

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Mexico gave up more than 500,000 square miles of territory to the United States

Wilmot Proviso

proposed that in any territory the United States gained from Mexico "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist"

Lewis Cass

proposed popular sovereignty

Popular sovereignty

the citizens of each new territory should be allowed to decide for themselves if they wanted to permit slavery or not.

Conscience Whigs

opposed slavery and taylor

Cotton Whigs

supported slavery and taylor

Free-Soil Party

Conscience Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and abolitionists of the Liberty Party who joined together and opposed slavery in the "free soil" of western territories


80,000 that arrived in California to look for Gold

Compromise of 1850

proposed by clay, eased the tensions over the slavery in the south but not in the north, and what would happen to the new territories in the west; prevented civil war or succession.

John Calhoun

senator that defended the south saying if the Compromise of 1850 passed then the South would fall apart

Daniel Webster

senator of Massachusetts who supported clay's Compromise of 1850, calling on the senate to put national unity above sectional loyalties

Henry Clay

Senator of Kentucky proposed the Compromise of 1850 "The Great Compromiser"

Uncle Tom's Cabin

originally an anti-slavery newspaper that was published as a book, presented real people enslaved in dreadful circumstances, considered a cause of the civil war

Harriet Beecher Stowe

writer of Uncle Toms Cabin

Fugitive Slave Act

a person claiming that an African American had escaped from slavery had only to point out that person as a runaway to take him or her into custody.

"Civil Disobedience"

essay written by Thoreau justifying the Fugitive Slave Act

Underground Railroad

Informal but organized system which helped thousands of enslaved people escape

Harriet Tubman

runaway slave and Famous conductor of the Underground Railroad

Transcontinental railroad

built to connect the West Coast to the rest of the Country

Gadsden Purchase

30,000 square-mile strip of land in Arizona and New Mexico, which mexico accepted $10 million for the territory

Kansas-Nebraska Act

bill organized the Gadsden Purchase in to new territory called Nebraska

New England Emigrant Aid Society

an abolitionist group founded to recruit and outfit antislavery settlers bound for Kansas.

"Border Ruffians"

thousands of armed missourians that voted illegally in Kansas

Charles Sumner

Senator of Massachusetts, a fiery abolitionist, delivered a speech accusing pro-slavery senators of forcing Kansas into the ranks of slave state.

Andrew P. Butler

Senator of South Carolina, pro-slavery singled out in Charles Sumner's anti-slavery speech.

Preston Brooks

Brutally beat sumner with his cain for criticizing the South Carolina, his relative Butler, and the south.

Republican Party

people got angry about the Kansas-Nebraska act causing Whigs, members of the Free-soil party, and a few anti-slavery democrats to come together.

Know Nothings

anti-catholic and ant-immigrant group

John C. Fremont

a famous Western explorer nicknamed "The Pathfinder". Spoke in favor of Kansas becoming a free state

James Buchanan

he believed the best way to save the Union was to make concession to the South.

Dred Scott

enslaved man who Missouri slaveholder took him to live in free territory before returning to Missouri. Assisted by abolitionist, he sued to end his slavery, arguing that the time he had spent in free territory meant he was free.

Roger Taney

First Catholic Chief justice; ruled against scott because he claimed African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not sue in the courts


popular vote on the constitution

Abraham Lincoln

Republican who ran for the Senate against Stephen Douglas, later nominated to run president

Stephen Douglas

"The Little Giant" ran against Lincoln for the Senate

John Brown

abolitionist who believed "God had raised him up on purpose to break the laws of the wicked" tried to seize the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, and arm enslaved people

Harper's Ferry

federal arsenal, that was attacked by Brown


rebellion against slaveholders

John Breckenridge

vice president, Southern Democrats nominate him to run for president

William Seward

first republican nominee, not very popular so they switched to Lincoln

Constitutional Union Party

campaigned on a position of upholding both the Constitution and the Union

John Crittenden

proposed amendments to the constitution, one guaranteed slavery where it already existed, another reinstated missouri compromise line, Slavery prohibited north and protected south of line

Jefferson Davis

former Mississippi senator chosen to as president of the Confederacy


declared to be a new nation--the Confederate States of American

Ft. Sumter

Davis tried to take it, began the Civil War

Martial law

when the military takes control of an area and replaces civilian authorities, and it suspends certain civil rights

Robert E. Lee

one of the best senior officers in the united states army, offered commander of union, instead dropped out of army and joined confederacy

Tredegar Iron Works

southern factory capable of producing cannons

Legal Tender Act

created a national currency and allowed the government to issue paper money

War Democrats

strongly supported the conflict and hoped to restore the Union to the way it was before the war


peace Democrats

Habeas corpus

a person's rights not to be imprisoned person unless charged with a crime and given a trial

Alexander Stephens

Davis's vice president, who was against Davis because he suspended habeas corpus and forced people to join the army

Trent Affair

North captured Mason and Slidell and is forced to return them by GB

James Mason

sent from south to Britain

John Slidell

sent from south to France


long knives attacked to he front of their guns.

Conoidal bullets

cone shaped allowed rifles to be accurate at much greater ranges


the wearing down of one side by the other through exhaustion of soldiers and resources

Anaconda Plan

Union blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats down the Mississippi to divide the confederacy. Causing the South to run out of resources.

P.G. T. Beauregard

led confederate troops under his command gathered south 25 miles south of DC

Stonewall Jackson

Led reinforcement at Bull Run and was rallied behind; went on to become one of the most effective commanders in the Confederate Army

Irwin McDowell

Union commander who retreated at Bull Run

Blockade runners

small fast vessels the South used to Smuggle goods past the blockade, usually under the cover of night

Alabama & Florida

two of the most famous confederate raider warships

David G. Farragut

daringly led fleet upriver through Confederate Forts, who attacked them, all but 4 ships made it through

Ulysses S. Grant

Union general who began a campaign to seize control of two rivers: The Cumberland River, and the Tennessee River.


Grant is attacked off guard, he holds the line, and attacks offensively the next day causing the Confederates to retreat


battle ended inconclusively and after Union reinforcements arrived Bragg retreats

George B. McClellan

Lincoln orders him to lead Union in the east


bloodiest one day battle in the war, and in American History

Emancipation Proclamation

a decree freeing all enslaved persons in states still in rebellion

54th Massachusetts

Union regiment which fought valiantly at Fort Wagner near Charlestown Harbor, loosing nearly half of its soldiers

Florence Nightingale

Famous British nurse who inspired many women to take on many of the nursing tasks in army hospitals

Elizabeth Blackwell

first female physician in the US, started the nation's first training program for nurses.

U.S. Sanitary Commission

an organization that provided medical assistance and supplies to army camps and hospitals


most infamous prison prison in the South, in Georgia, open camp with no shade or shelter for its giant population

Henry Wirz

the commandment at Andersonville, became the only person executed for War Crimes during the civil war.


the last major confederate stronghold on the river

Benjamin Grierson

took 1,700 troops on a cavalry raid through Mississippi, tearing up railroads, burning depots, and fighting skirmishes

Ambrose Burnside

Lincoln urged him to go south into Virginia and destroy Lee's Army.


Burnside ordered a series of bloody assaults against Lee here but it failed and the Union lost more than twice as many as the Confederates


Hooker attacked Lee here in the Wilderness, Lee outnumbered 2-1 Lee still defeated the Union

Joseph Hooker

Lincoln replaced burnside with him after he was embarrassed in Fredericksburg

George Meade

Lincoln replaced Hooker with him after Hooker failed at Chancellorsville

Pickett's Charge

mile-wide line of Confederate troops that marched across open farmland toward Cemetery ridge

Gettysburg Address

one of the best known orations in American History; talked about how all men are created equally


Union forced the Confederates to evacuate here without a fight, all of a sudden Confederates attacked and surrounded the Union at Chattanooga


Union forces came to back up the surrounded Northerners and drove the Confederates back


a densely forested area near Fredericksburg, Virginia

Cold Harbor

a strategic crossroads northeast of Richmond

Philip Sheridan

staged a cavalry raid north and west of Richmond to distract Lee's troops

William T. Sherman

lead the "March to the Sea"

March to the Sea

troops marched to destroy everything in Atlanta of military value, including railroads, warehouses, mills, factories, and machine shops. Fire spread burning down 1/3 of Atlanta.


looting everything around


clear sign from the voters, to end slavery permanently by amending the Constitution

13th Amendment

Banned Slavery in the WHOLE United States

Appomattox Courthouse

here ragged and battered troops surrounded and outnumbered, Lee surrendered to Grant

John Wilkes Booth

assassinated Lincoln


rebuilding after the war


pardon to all southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the United States and accepted the Unions proclamations concerning slavery

Thaddeus Stevens

Radical Rep of Pennsylvania, did not want to reconcile with the South

Charles Sumner

Radical Rep of Massachusetts, did not want to reconcile with the South

Wade-Davis Bill

required the majority of the adult white men in a former Confederate state to take an oath of allegiance to the Union

Pocket veto

to let the session of Congress expire without signing the legislation.

Freedman's Bureau

group given the task on feeding and clothing war refugees in the South using surplus army supplies

Andrew Johnson

Democrat living in Tennessee before the Civil War, became president after Lincoln was assassinated

Black Codes

varied from state to state which severely limited African Americans rights in the South

Fourteenth Amendment

granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States and declared that no state could deprive a person of life, liberty, or property.

Military Reconstruction Act

divided the former Confederacy except for Tennessee, into five military Districts


charging with high crimes and misdemeanors in office

Fifteenth Amendment

right to vote should not be denied by race, color, or prior servitude


Northerners that moved to the South, carried suitcases made of carpet fabric


an old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals


gaining money illegally through politics

Ku Klux Klan

southern secret society, who's goal was drive out the Union troops and carpetbaggers and regain control of the South for the Democratic Party

Ulysses S. Grant

Union Commander who led the North to victory in the Civil War

Sin Tax

tax on alcohol and tobacco, that helped pay off War bonds

Horace Greeley

ran against Grant to prevent his second term and still lost

Whiskey Ring

A group of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated the government out of millions of dollars by filing false tax reports.

Panic 1873

caused smaller banks to close and the stock market to plummet. Many Businesses shut down and many Americans out of work


Southern democrats who called on all whites to take back the South from "Black Republican" rule

Compromise of 1877

a promise by the Republicans to pull federal troops out of the South, if Hayes was elected.

Samuel Tilden

a wealthy corporate lawyer and former governor of New York who had tried to end the corruption in New York City's government.

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