Chapter 17 Cold War
Terms in this set (30)
Who was the war mainly between?
United States and Russia
United States type of government, what were they mostly about?
-Democratic and Capitalism
-mostly about freedom
USSR (Russia) type of government, what were they mostly about?
-Totalitarianism dictatorship and Communism
-mostly about control
The two superpowers tried to win allies by giving financial aid to other nations. For instance, Egypt took aid from the Soviet Union to build the Aswan High Dam.
Fearing the enemy might be gaining the advantage, each side spied on the other. One famous incident was the Soviet downing of the U.S. U-2 spy plane in 1960.
To gain support of other nations, both the Soviet Union and the U.S. entered into alliances. Two examples of this were NATO and the Warsaw pact.
Both superpowers used propaganda to try to win support overseas. For example. Radio Free Europe broadcast radio programs about the rest of the world into Eastern Europe.
The policy of brinkmanship meant going to the brink of war to make the other side back down. One example was the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The word surrogate means the substitute. Although the United States and the Soviet Union did not fight each other directly, they fought indirectly by backing opposing sides in many smaller conflicts.
United States Policy of the Cold War
Which two countries were Soviet Satellites?
Hungary and Czechoslovakia
How did Hungary resist Soviet Rule?
The army joined protesters to overthrow Hungary's Soviet controlled government, unfortunately the Soviets don't let them get away with it
How did Czechoslovakia resist Soviet Rule?
Try to make political reforms, and soften communism. The people support this, but once they were given a little freedom, they demanded more. So, the Soviets take control and send troops in to Prague Springs.
Even though China isn't a Soviet Satellite country, how did they resist Soviet rule?
Began to spread their own brand of communism in Africa and other parts of Asia. They did not need the support from Russia, and even though the Soviets aren't concerned, they still punish the Chinese.
What were the foreign policies of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson?
-Kennedy: Cuban Missile Crisis, US and USSR come close to war but back off
-Lyndon: Vietnam War, both sides were willing to fight
What was the foreign policy of Richard Nixon?
-Detente:policy of lessening cold war tensions. Grew out of a policy known as realpolitik.
What was the foreign policy of Ronald Reagan?
-Anti Communist Stance
-"Star Wars," a program to protect against enemy missiles
-did the exact opposite of Nixon
SALT 1 Treaty
-five year agreement limited to 1972 levels of the number of intercontinental ballistic and submarine launched missiles each country could have
How did the revolution effect Cuba?
-Fidel Castro suspends elections, jailed, or executed his opponents, and tightly controlled the press
Why did the U.S. support the Cuban invasion (Bay of Pigs)?
Because Castro had taken over U.S. owned sugar mills and refineries
What were the consequences of civil war for Nicaragua?
-weakened the country's economy
-The Sardinistas were defeated in elections
Why did the Ayatollah Khomeini hate the U.S.?
-because the U.S. supported the Shah, and helped westernize his country but still much of the country was living in poverty
What part did the United States play in the Muslim War?
-secretly gave aid to both sides because it did not want the balance of power in the region to change
Who was Mao Zedong?
Who was Jiang Jieshi?
-Mao Zedong was a Chinese Communist leader
-Jiang Jieshi was a chinese military and political figure. He was the leader of Nationalistic china
When did the civil war in china resume?
When did the civil war end?
-Resumed in 1946
-Ended in 1949
What advantages did Nationalistic forces have?
What advantages did Communist forces have?
-The Nationalists outnumbered the Communist army and were aided by the United States
-The Communists had thousands of Nationalistic soldiers switch over, known as guerrilla warfare
Where is Nationalistic China located?
Where is the People's Republic of China located?
-Nationalist China is located in the rugged mountains of Taiwan
-the People's Republic of China is located in China, also known as the mainland
How did the superpowers react to the existence of two Chinas?
How did Mao transform the economy of China?
-the U.S. helped setup a Nationalistic government, and the Soviet Union gave financial, military, and technical aid to Communist China
-Chinese troops expanded in to Tibet, India, and southern Mongolia. The Chinese promised autonomy to Tibetans, then fled to India
Why did the Great Leap Forward fail?
Why did Mao launch the cultural revolution?
-poor planning, and inefficient homes, industries hampered growth. Crop failures caused famine
-to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
Who were the Red Guards? How did they come about?
The Red Guards were militia units formed by young Chinese people in 1966 in response to Mao Zedong's call for a social and cultural revolution
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