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17 terms

Psychology Chapter 7 Operant Conditioning Final

STUDY
PLAY
Skinner Box
designed the operant chamber, which has a bar that an animal presses to release a reward, with a device that records responses; proved rewarded behavior is likely to recur
Reinforcer
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; strengthens the response
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli; when removed after a response, it strengthens the response
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
secondary reinforcer
conditioned reinforcer; a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
fixed-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable umber of responses
fixed-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior
positive punishment
adds something unpleasant
negative punishment
takes away something pleasant
shaping
reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of desired behavior
observational learning
learn by observing others
modeling
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Watson
similar to Pavlov; conscious/unconscious didn't matter in learning