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100 terms

ESL Praxis Study #1

Another set of ESL Praxis terms
STUDY
PLAY
Affective Filter
Imaginary wall between the learner and the language input. Filter blocks the learning of input. Learner's attitude affects the second language acquisition.
Alveolor
Tongue tip behind front teeth (sip, zip, d, l)
Antecedent
The noun that the pronoun refers to
Bilabial
Uses two lips (Pop, Bib, Mom)
CAL
Center for Applied Linguistics. Aims to promote and improve the teaching and learning of languages
Circumlocation
Too many words
Cognitive Approach
Deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving
Community Language Learning
A teaching method for adults based on group counseling. Student-centered. No books.
Content Word
A word to which an independent meaning can be assigned. (Nouns, Adj., Verbs, Adverbs)
Cultural Bias
Occurs when a test taker's performance on an assessment is negatively affected by the inclusion of material that is culture specific.
Demonstrative Pronoun
Replaces the noun. This, that, these, those
Developmental Stages of Writing
Pre-emergent (verbalizes), Emergent (writes), Early (writes some), Fluent (writes well)
Digraph
Two letters that indicate one sound. (sh, ch, th)
EFL
English as a Foreign Language
English Only
A movement to push for English as the official language in the United States
ESOL
English for Speakers of Other Languages
Figurative Language
Metaphor, idiom, personification, simile. A way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words.
Fricatives
Air flow is constricted, but not stopped. (fluff, verve, sip, hop, she, zip)
Glottal
Sounds made in the glottis (h)
Home Language Survey
A federally mandated questionnaire that schools administer to newly enrolled students to determine whether a language other than English is spoken in the home.
Integrative Motivation
Wanting to learn a language to become part of a speech community
Invented Spelling
Demonstrates students developing ability to write words phonetically
KATESOL
Kansas Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Krashen
Use the term (i + 1) to refer to language that is slightly beyond one's level of functioning.
Labiodental
Made by biting down on the lower lip (Fluff, Verve)
Language Experience Approach
Students can learn to write by dictating to the teacher, then read what they have written. Emphasizes meaning.
LFS Classroom
Limited formal schooling. Classroom should be visually rich and focus on familiar experiences
Long Vowels
Tense Vowels. (Beet, bait, boat, boot, bite, boy, bout) (a, e, i, o, u, oy, ou, oo)
Metacognitive Learning
Self-Monitoring. Thinking about what they have learned.
Morpheme
The smallest unit of meaning in a word
NAME
National Association for Multicultural Education
Natural Order Hypothesis
State that there is a natural predetermined order in which we can acquire language
Nonstandard Dialect
Has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but does not have recognized institutional support. (Southern English)
OELA
Office of English Language Acquisition (Established by ES Dept of ED in 1974)
Performance Based Approach
Measures progress in terms of what real world tasks students are able to accomplish. Includes portfolios, checklists, reading logs. (Student will be able to...)
Placement Assessment
IPT or KELPA-P. A formal assessment of the student's skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening)
Polysynthetic
Really long words, lots of syllables, usually not English. Each word could be translated as a whole sentence.
Preposition
A word used before a noun to connect to another noun. (in, down, under) (Anywhere a cat can go)
Rising Intonation
Indicates a question
Semantics
A field of study concerned with the meaning of words, idioms, and other figurative languages.
Sheltered ESL Class
Using simplified English in a classroom for content based instruction
Simple
Words with one free morpheme (tree)
Sociology/Anthropology/Education Theory
Children develop language skills because they are essential to social interaction
Strategy Based Instruction
Includes test taking techniques and study skills
Syntactic
Rules for forming sentences
TESOL
Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages (Social, Academic, and Sociocultural Languages. Do Not care about explicit grammar
Top Down Strategies
Studying language as a whole. Striving for meaning without concern for individual components of languages. Clues such as intonation, tone of voice, and body language
Two Way Bilingual ESL Programs
Native and nonnative speakers of English work together. All students learn content and language through two languages.
Voiced
Vocal cords are vibrating (These)
Voicing
Air comes up from the lungs and passes through the glottal region which contains the vocal cords. Vibrates (This, thy)
Word Englishes
These are the variety of way sin which English is spoken around the world. Also known as International English, Global English, Common English, and General English
Acculturation
A progress in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Merging of 2 groups
Agglutinative
Combine many morphemes into a word
AMAOS
Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives
Aspiration
Strong burst of air (Tore)
Behaviorism Theory
All learning happens as a result of stimulus and response. Result of environment. Skinner and Pavlov. Repetition due to reward
Bottom Up Strategies
focus on the actual words in a text, rather than on meaning. Starts with basic blocks (words) builds up to complex. Analyze, decipher, focus on the little
Castenada vs. Pickard
1981 Outlines the criteria for determining a school's degree of compliance with federal law
Code Switching
Using more than one language in conversation. Spanglish. switching back and forth or intermixing languages
Communicative Competence
The ability to use the language appropriate to a particular social context
Complex
Words with a free morpheme and one or more bound morphemes (trees)
Constructivism
Build a classroom community, projects with real life applications, cooperative problem solving
Derivational Morphemes
Changes the meaning of the word of the part of speech or both. (un) creates a new word
English Consonant Phoneme
Made by restricting or stopping flow of air
ESL Inclusion
ESL teacher comes to the students in the regular classroom
Extrapolating
A prediction that extends existing data. A conjecture
Fossilization
Happens when a language learner appears to get stuck at a specific stage. When an error becomes a habit
Future Perfect Tense
Indicates completed action in the future. (Will have taken)
I + 1
Learner input should be based on language that is slightly beyond the learner's current receptive level. (Krashen)
Initial Position
Letter or letters at the beginning of a word
Interllanguage
Forms of a language in between the first language and the target language. Code-switching is an example
Irregular Verbs
Verbs that do not follow the usual rules. (Driven, chosen, bent, broke
KELPA-P
Same as KELPA. Newer and used for Placement
L1 Transfer
Second Language
Lau vs. Nichol
Ensured that English was taught to all in order to proved equal access to educational opportunities
Maintenance Bilingual Education Program
Attempts to educate students in the majority language while also promoting the use of native language at school in order to develop bilingualism
Metalinguistic Skills
The ability to talk about language, analyze and think about it, and separate it from context.
Morphology
a field of study including meanings of prefixes, suffixes, and inflections
Nasalization
A way of pronouncing sounds characterized by resonance produced through the nose.
Negative Transfer
Incorrectly applying rules/structures from one language to another
National-Functional Sequencing
Teaches 'functions' rather than grammar or vocab in isolation. (Greetings, Requests, Thank You)
Overgeneralization
The over extension of a learned rule. (goed)
Passive Voice
Sentence where the subject is receiving the action. (Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. Sam was given the award)
Phoneme
A sound that makes a difference in language. (l and r in lip and rip)
Plyer vs. Doc
1982, Texas. 14th Amendment prohibits states from denying education to undocumented immigrant children. It connected residency and the right to attend school.
Present Perfect Tense
Action that happened in the past, but is connected to the present. (I'm not hungry because I have already eaten at the school cafeteria.)
Register
Different kinds of social language (Ruby Payne). Depends on the age and social status of the person being greeted.
Scaffolding
Providing supports for meaning during instruction or assessment. (Visual displays, charts, tables, graphs, classified lists, wait time, paraphrasing)
Self-Monitoring Strategies
Checking on one's own learning. This is a metacognitive strategy
Silent Period
A period of time when ESL students do not speak. (2 weeks to 1 year) They are listening, learning, and processing.
Stereotype
Mental category based on exaggerated and inaccurate generalizations used to describe all members of a group
Suggestopedia
Teaching method that uses relaxation techniques. (yoga, classical music, soft lighting, welcoming atmosphere, etc.
Testing Criteria
Tests should be valid, reliable, and standards and performance based.
Velar
Sounds made by articulating the body of the tongue towards the velum. (k, g, ng)
Word Stems
Part of a word that is common to all it's variants. Root Word
Effective Texts for ESOL Learners
Highlighted text, Taped text, Adapted text, Marginal notes, Jigsaw reading
Superlative Adjectives
Compare more than 2 things (closest, fastest)
Transitional Bilingual Education Program
Works to build student's English proficiency and put them into mainstream classes as quickly as possible.
Visual Learner
Learn by seeing. Charts, diagrams, art, posters, pictures, etc.
Voiceless Stops
p, k, t Easier to whisper