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Another set of ESL Praxis terms

Affective Filter

Imaginary wall between the learner and the language input. Filter blocks the learning of input. Learner's attitude affects the second language acquisition.


Tongue tip behind front teeth (sip, zip, d, l)


The noun that the pronoun refers to


Uses two lips (Pop, Bib, Mom)


Center for Applied Linguistics. Aims to promote and improve the teaching and learning of languages


Too many words

Cognitive Approach

Deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving

Community Language Learning

A teaching method for adults based on group counseling. Student-centered. No books.

Content Word

A word to which an independent meaning can be assigned. (Nouns, Adj., Verbs, Adverbs)

Cultural Bias

Occurs when a test taker's performance on an assessment is negatively affected by the inclusion of material that is culture specific.

Demonstrative Pronoun

Replaces the noun. This, that, these, those

Developmental Stages of Writing

Pre-emergent (verbalizes), Emergent (writes), Early (writes some), Fluent (writes well)


Two letters that indicate one sound. (sh, ch, th)


English as a Foreign Language

English Only

A movement to push for English as the official language in the United States


English for Speakers of Other Languages

Figurative Language

Metaphor, idiom, personification, simile. A way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words.


Air flow is constricted, but not stopped. (fluff, verve, sip, hop, she, zip)


Sounds made in the glottis (h)

Home Language Survey

A federally mandated questionnaire that schools administer to newly enrolled students to determine whether a language other than English is spoken in the home.

Integrative Motivation

Wanting to learn a language to become part of a speech community

Invented Spelling

Demonstrates students developing ability to write words phonetically


Kansas Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages


Use the term (i + 1) to refer to language that is slightly beyond one's level of functioning.


Made by biting down on the lower lip (Fluff, Verve)

Language Experience Approach

Students can learn to write by dictating to the teacher, then read what they have written. Emphasizes meaning.

LFS Classroom

Limited formal schooling. Classroom should be visually rich and focus on familiar experiences

Long Vowels

Tense Vowels. (Beet, bait, boat, boot, bite, boy, bout) (a, e, i, o, u, oy, ou, oo)

Metacognitive Learning

Self-Monitoring. Thinking about what they have learned.


The smallest unit of meaning in a word


National Association for Multicultural Education

Natural Order Hypothesis

State that there is a natural predetermined order in which we can acquire language

Nonstandard Dialect

Has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but does not have recognized institutional support. (Southern English)


Office of English Language Acquisition (Established by ES Dept of ED in 1974)

Performance Based Approach

Measures progress in terms of what real world tasks students are able to accomplish. Includes portfolios, checklists, reading logs. (Student will be able to...)

Placement Assessment

IPT or KELPA-P. A formal assessment of the student's skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening)


Really long words, lots of syllables, usually not English. Each word could be translated as a whole sentence.


A word used before a noun to connect to another noun. (in, down, under) (Anywhere a cat can go)

Rising Intonation

Indicates a question


A field of study concerned with the meaning of words, idioms, and other figurative languages.

Sheltered ESL Class

Using simplified English in a classroom for content based instruction


Words with one free morpheme (tree)

Sociology/Anthropology/Education Theory

Children develop language skills because they are essential to social interaction

Strategy Based Instruction

Includes test taking techniques and study skills


Rules for forming sentences


Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages (Social, Academic, and Sociocultural Languages. Do Not care about explicit grammar

Top Down Strategies

Studying language as a whole. Striving for meaning without concern for individual components of languages. Clues such as intonation, tone of voice, and body language

Two Way Bilingual ESL Programs

Native and nonnative speakers of English work together. All students learn content and language through two languages.


Vocal cords are vibrating (These)


Air comes up from the lungs and passes through the glottal region which contains the vocal cords. Vibrates (This, thy)

Word Englishes

These are the variety of way sin which English is spoken around the world. Also known as International English, Global English, Common English, and General English


A progress in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Merging of 2 groups


Combine many morphemes into a word


Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives


Strong burst of air (Tore)

Behaviorism Theory

All learning happens as a result of stimulus and response. Result of environment. Skinner and Pavlov. Repetition due to reward

Bottom Up Strategies

focus on the actual words in a text, rather than on meaning. Starts with basic blocks (words) builds up to complex. Analyze, decipher, focus on the little

Castenada vs. Pickard

1981 Outlines the criteria for determining a school's degree of compliance with federal law

Code Switching

Using more than one language in conversation. Spanglish. switching back and forth or intermixing languages

Communicative Competence

The ability to use the language appropriate to a particular social context


Words with a free morpheme and one or more bound morphemes (trees)


Build a classroom community, projects with real life applications, cooperative problem solving

Derivational Morphemes

Changes the meaning of the word of the part of speech or both. (un) creates a new word

English Consonant Phoneme

Made by restricting or stopping flow of air

ESL Inclusion

ESL teacher comes to the students in the regular classroom


A prediction that extends existing data. A conjecture


Happens when a language learner appears to get stuck at a specific stage. When an error becomes a habit

Future Perfect Tense

Indicates completed action in the future. (Will have taken)

I + 1

Learner input should be based on language that is slightly beyond the learner's current receptive level. (Krashen)

Initial Position

Letter or letters at the beginning of a word


Forms of a language in between the first language and the target language. Code-switching is an example

Irregular Verbs

Verbs that do not follow the usual rules. (Driven, chosen, bent, broke


Same as KELPA. Newer and used for Placement

L1 Transfer

Second Language

Lau vs. Nichol

Ensured that English was taught to all in order to proved equal access to educational opportunities

Maintenance Bilingual Education Program

Attempts to educate students in the majority language while also promoting the use of native language at school in order to develop bilingualism

Metalinguistic Skills

The ability to talk about language, analyze and think about it, and separate it from context.


a field of study including meanings of prefixes, suffixes, and inflections


A way of pronouncing sounds characterized by resonance produced through the nose.

Negative Transfer

Incorrectly applying rules/structures from one language to another

National-Functional Sequencing

Teaches 'functions' rather than grammar or vocab in isolation. (Greetings, Requests, Thank You)


The over extension of a learned rule. (goed)

Passive Voice

Sentence where the subject is receiving the action. (Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. Sam was given the award)


A sound that makes a difference in language. (l and r in lip and rip)

Plyer vs. Doc

1982, Texas. 14th Amendment prohibits states from denying education to undocumented immigrant children. It connected residency and the right to attend school.

Present Perfect Tense

Action that happened in the past, but is connected to the present. (I'm not hungry because I have already eaten at the school cafeteria.)


Different kinds of social language (Ruby Payne). Depends on the age and social status of the person being greeted.


Providing supports for meaning during instruction or assessment. (Visual displays, charts, tables, graphs, classified lists, wait time, paraphrasing)

Self-Monitoring Strategies

Checking on one's own learning. This is a metacognitive strategy

Silent Period

A period of time when ESL students do not speak. (2 weeks to 1 year) They are listening, learning, and processing.


Mental category based on exaggerated and inaccurate generalizations used to describe all members of a group


Teaching method that uses relaxation techniques. (yoga, classical music, soft lighting, welcoming atmosphere, etc.

Testing Criteria

Tests should be valid, reliable, and standards and performance based.


Sounds made by articulating the body of the tongue towards the velum. (k, g, ng)

Word Stems

Part of a word that is common to all it's variants. Root Word

Effective Texts for ESOL Learners

Highlighted text, Taped text, Adapted text, Marginal notes, Jigsaw reading

Superlative Adjectives

Compare more than 2 things (closest, fastest)

Transitional Bilingual Education Program

Works to build student's English proficiency and put them into mainstream classes as quickly as possible.

Visual Learner

Learn by seeing. Charts, diagrams, art, posters, pictures, etc.

Voiceless Stops

p, k, t Easier to whisper

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