ESL Praxis Study #1
Another set of ESL Praxis terms
Imaginary wall between the learner and the language input. Filter blocks the learning of input. Learner's attitude affects the second language acquisition.
Tongue tip behind front teeth (sip, zip, d, l)
The noun that the pronoun refers to
Uses two lips (Pop, Bib, Mom)
Center for Applied Linguistics. Aims to promote and improve the teaching and learning of languages
Too many words
Deals with mental processes like memory and problem solving
Community Language Learning
A teaching method for adults based on group counseling. Student-centered. No books.
A word to which an independent meaning can be assigned. (Nouns, Adj., Verbs, Adverbs)
Occurs when a test taker's performance on an assessment is negatively affected by the inclusion of material that is culture specific.
Replaces the noun. This, that, these, those
Developmental Stages of Writing
Pre-emergent (verbalizes), Emergent (writes), Early (writes some), Fluent (writes well)
Two letters that indicate one sound. (sh, ch, th)
English as a Foreign Language
A movement to push for English as the official language in the United States
English for Speakers of Other Languages
Metaphor, idiom, personification, simile. A way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words.
Air flow is constricted, but not stopped. (fluff, verve, sip, hop, she, zip)
Sounds made in the glottis (h)
Home Language Survey
A federally mandated questionnaire that schools administer to newly enrolled students to determine whether a language other than English is spoken in the home.
Wanting to learn a language to become part of a speech community
Demonstrates students developing ability to write words phonetically
Kansas Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Use the term (i + 1) to refer to language that is slightly beyond one's level of functioning.
Made by biting down on the lower lip (Fluff, Verve)
Language Experience Approach
Students can learn to write by dictating to the teacher, then read what they have written. Emphasizes meaning.
Limited formal schooling. Classroom should be visually rich and focus on familiar experiences
Tense Vowels. (Beet, bait, boat, boot, bite, boy, bout) (a, e, i, o, u, oy, ou, oo)
Self-Monitoring. Thinking about what they have learned.
The smallest unit of meaning in a word
National Association for Multicultural Education
Natural Order Hypothesis
State that there is a natural predetermined order in which we can acquire language
Has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but does not have recognized institutional support. (Southern English)
Office of English Language Acquisition (Established by ES Dept of ED in 1974)
Performance Based Approach
Measures progress in terms of what real world tasks students are able to accomplish. Includes portfolios, checklists, reading logs. (Student will be able to...)
IPT or KELPA-P. A formal assessment of the student's skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening)
Really long words, lots of syllables, usually not English. Each word could be translated as a whole sentence.
A word used before a noun to connect to another noun. (in, down, under) (Anywhere a cat can go)
Indicates a question
A field of study concerned with the meaning of words, idioms, and other figurative languages.
Sheltered ESL Class
Using simplified English in a classroom for content based instruction
Words with one free morpheme (tree)
Children develop language skills because they are essential to social interaction
Strategy Based Instruction
Includes test taking techniques and study skills
Rules for forming sentences
Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages (Social, Academic, and Sociocultural Languages. Do Not care about explicit grammar
Top Down Strategies
Studying language as a whole. Striving for meaning without concern for individual components of languages. Clues such as intonation, tone of voice, and body language
Two Way Bilingual ESL Programs
Native and nonnative speakers of English work together. All students learn content and language through two languages.
Vocal cords are vibrating (These)
Air comes up from the lungs and passes through the glottal region which contains the vocal cords. Vibrates (This, thy)
These are the variety of way sin which English is spoken around the world. Also known as International English, Global English, Common English, and General English
A progress in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Merging of 2 groups
Combine many morphemes into a word
Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives
Strong burst of air (Tore)
All learning happens as a result of stimulus and response. Result of environment. Skinner and Pavlov. Repetition due to reward
Bottom Up Strategies
focus on the actual words in a text, rather than on meaning. Starts with basic blocks (words) builds up to complex. Analyze, decipher, focus on the little
Castenada vs. Pickard
1981 Outlines the criteria for determining a school's degree of compliance with federal law
Using more than one language in conversation. Spanglish. switching back and forth or intermixing languages
The ability to use the language appropriate to a particular social context
Words with a free morpheme and one or more bound morphemes (trees)
Build a classroom community, projects with real life applications, cooperative problem solving
Changes the meaning of the word of the part of speech or both. (un) creates a new word
English Consonant Phoneme
Made by restricting or stopping flow of air
ESL teacher comes to the students in the regular classroom
A prediction that extends existing data. A conjecture
Happens when a language learner appears to get stuck at a specific stage. When an error becomes a habit
Future Perfect Tense
Indicates completed action in the future. (Will have taken)
I + 1
Learner input should be based on language that is slightly beyond the learner's current receptive level. (Krashen)
Letter or letters at the beginning of a word
Forms of a language in between the first language and the target language. Code-switching is an example
Verbs that do not follow the usual rules. (Driven, chosen, bent, broke
Same as KELPA. Newer and used for Placement
Lau vs. Nichol
Ensured that English was taught to all in order to proved equal access to educational opportunities
Maintenance Bilingual Education Program
Attempts to educate students in the majority language while also promoting the use of native language at school in order to develop bilingualism
The ability to talk about language, analyze and think about it, and separate it from context.
a field of study including meanings of prefixes, suffixes, and inflections
A way of pronouncing sounds characterized by resonance produced through the nose.
Incorrectly applying rules/structures from one language to another
Teaches 'functions' rather than grammar or vocab in isolation. (Greetings, Requests, Thank You)
The over extension of a learned rule. (goed)
Sentence where the subject is receiving the action. (Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. Sam was given the award)
A sound that makes a difference in language. (l and r in lip and rip)
Plyer vs. Doc
1982, Texas. 14th Amendment prohibits states from denying education to undocumented immigrant children. It connected residency and the right to attend school.
Present Perfect Tense
Action that happened in the past, but is connected to the present. (I'm not hungry because I have already eaten at the school cafeteria.)
Different kinds of social language (Ruby Payne). Depends on the age and social status of the person being greeted.
Providing supports for meaning during instruction or assessment. (Visual displays, charts, tables, graphs, classified lists, wait time, paraphrasing)
Checking on one's own learning. This is a metacognitive strategy
A period of time when ESL students do not speak. (2 weeks to 1 year) They are listening, learning, and processing.
Mental category based on exaggerated and inaccurate generalizations used to describe all members of a group
Teaching method that uses relaxation techniques. (yoga, classical music, soft lighting, welcoming atmosphere, etc.
Tests should be valid, reliable, and standards and performance based.
Sounds made by articulating the body of the tongue towards the velum. (k, g, ng)
Part of a word that is common to all it's variants. Root Word
Effective Texts for ESOL Learners
Highlighted text, Taped text, Adapted text, Marginal notes, Jigsaw reading
Compare more than 2 things (closest, fastest)
Transitional Bilingual Education Program
Works to build student's English proficiency and put them into mainstream classes as quickly as possible.
Learn by seeing. Charts, diagrams, art, posters, pictures, etc.
p, k, t Easier to whisper