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Imaginary wall between the learner and the language input. Filter blocks the learning of input. Learner's attitude affects the second language acquisition.
Center for Applied Linguistics. Aims to promote and improve the teaching and learning of languages
Community Language Learning
A teaching method for adults based on group counseling. Student-centered. No books.
Occurs when a test taker's performance on an assessment is negatively affected by the inclusion of material that is culture specific.
Developmental Stages of Writing
Pre-emergent (verbalizes), Emergent (writes), Early (writes some), Fluent (writes well)
Metaphor, idiom, personification, simile. A way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words.
Home Language Survey
A federally mandated questionnaire that schools administer to newly enrolled students to determine whether a language other than English is spoken in the home.
Use the term (i + 1) to refer to language that is slightly beyond one's level of functioning.
Language Experience Approach
Students can learn to write by dictating to the teacher, then read what they have written. Emphasizes meaning.
Limited formal schooling. Classroom should be visually rich and focus on familiar experiences
Natural Order Hypothesis
State that there is a natural predetermined order in which we can acquire language
Has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but does not have recognized institutional support. (Southern English)
Performance Based Approach
Measures progress in terms of what real world tasks students are able to accomplish. Includes portfolios, checklists, reading logs. (Student will be able to...)
IPT or KELPA-P. A formal assessment of the student's skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening)
Really long words, lots of syllables, usually not English. Each word could be translated as a whole sentence.
A word used before a noun to connect to another noun. (in, down, under) (Anywhere a cat can go)
A field of study concerned with the meaning of words, idioms, and other figurative languages.
Children develop language skills because they are essential to social interaction
Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages (Social, Academic, and Sociocultural Languages. Do Not care about explicit grammar
Top Down Strategies
Studying language as a whole. Striving for meaning without concern for individual components of languages. Clues such as intonation, tone of voice, and body language
Two Way Bilingual ESL Programs
Native and nonnative speakers of English work together. All students learn content and language through two languages.
Air comes up from the lungs and passes through the glottal region which contains the vocal cords. Vibrates (This, thy)
These are the variety of way sin which English is spoken around the world. Also known as International English, Global English, Common English, and General English
A progress in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group. Merging of 2 groups
All learning happens as a result of stimulus and response. Result of environment. Skinner and Pavlov. Repetition due to reward
Bottom Up Strategies
focus on the actual words in a text, rather than on meaning. Starts with basic blocks (words) builds up to complex. Analyze, decipher, focus on the little
Castenada vs. Pickard
1981 Outlines the criteria for determining a school's degree of compliance with federal law
Using more than one language in conversation. Spanglish. switching back and forth or intermixing languages
Build a classroom community, projects with real life applications, cooperative problem solving
Changes the meaning of the word of the part of speech or both. (un) creates a new word
Happens when a language learner appears to get stuck at a specific stage. When an error becomes a habit
I + 1
Learner input should be based on language that is slightly beyond the learner's current receptive level. (Krashen)
Forms of a language in between the first language and the target language. Code-switching is an example
Lau vs. Nichol
Ensured that English was taught to all in order to proved equal access to educational opportunities
Maintenance Bilingual Education Program
Attempts to educate students in the majority language while also promoting the use of native language at school in order to develop bilingualism
The ability to talk about language, analyze and think about it, and separate it from context.
Teaches 'functions' rather than grammar or vocab in isolation. (Greetings, Requests, Thank You)
Sentence where the subject is receiving the action. (Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. Sam was given the award)
Plyer vs. Doc
1982, Texas. 14th Amendment prohibits states from denying education to undocumented immigrant children. It connected residency and the right to attend school.
Present Perfect Tense
Action that happened in the past, but is connected to the present. (I'm not hungry because I have already eaten at the school cafeteria.)
Different kinds of social language (Ruby Payne). Depends on the age and social status of the person being greeted.
Providing supports for meaning during instruction or assessment. (Visual displays, charts, tables, graphs, classified lists, wait time, paraphrasing)
A period of time when ESL students do not speak. (2 weeks to 1 year) They are listening, learning, and processing.
Mental category based on exaggerated and inaccurate generalizations used to describe all members of a group
Teaching method that uses relaxation techniques. (yoga, classical music, soft lighting, welcoming atmosphere, etc.
Effective Texts for ESOL Learners
Highlighted text, Taped text, Adapted text, Marginal notes, Jigsaw reading
Transitional Bilingual Education Program
Works to build student's English proficiency and put them into mainstream classes as quickly as possible.
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