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Medical Terminology: Diseases and Disorders

Medical terminology diseases and disorders
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aplasia
the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
atresia
describes the congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
Down syndrome
a genetic variation that is associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
fetal alcohol syndrome
caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during the pregnancy
functional disorder
produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
genetic disorder
a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene
Huntington's disease
a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child that causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife
muscular dystrophy
the term used to describe a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
nosocomial infection
a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
organic disorder
produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body
phenylketonuria
a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing
Tay-Sachs disease
a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain
Colles' fracture
occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
hallux valgus
an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
Paget's disease
a bone disease of unknown cause characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
primary bone cancer
a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
secondary bone cancer
describes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
short stature
a condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length
spina bifida
a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
Achilles tendinitis
a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon
carpal tunnel syndrome
occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
compartment syndrome
involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles
fibromyalgia syndrome
a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms
ganglion cyst
a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
impingement syndrome
occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
intermittent claudication
pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
myasthenia gravis
a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
myofascial pain syndrome
a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body
spasmodic torticollis
a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
ischemic heart disease
a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart
leukemia
a type of cancer characterized by a progressive increase in the number of abnormal leukocytes found in blood forming tissues, other organs, and in the circulating blood
megaloblastic anemia
a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
pernicious anemia
caused by a lack of the protein intrinsic factor that helps the body absorb vitamin B-12 from the gastrointestinal tract
Raynaud's phenomenon
a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress
Raynaud's phenomenon
a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress
thalassemia
an inherited blood disorder that causes mild or severe anemia due to reduced hemoglobin and few red blood cells than normal
transfusion reaction
a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
the most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection
anaphylaxis
a severe response to an allergen in which the symptoms develop quickly, and without help, the patient can die within a few minutes.
autoimmune disorder
any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues
candidiasis
infections occurring on the skin or mucous membranes in the warm, moist areas such as the vagina or the mouth
carcinoma
a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
carcinoma in situ
describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues
ductal carcinoma in situ
breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct
herpes zoster
an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve
Hodgkin's lymphoma
distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail
infectious mononucleosis
an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes
infiltrating ductal carcinoma
starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades the fatty breast tissue
infiltrating lobular carcinoma
cancer that starts in the milk glands, breaks through the wall of the gland, and invades the fatty tissue of the breast
inflammatory breast cancer
the most aggressive and least common form of breast cancer
Kaposi's sarcoma
a cancer that causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under the skin, in the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, or in other organs; frequently associated with HIV
Lyme disease
caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected deer tick
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma
opportunistic infection
caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
caused by Rickettsis rickettsii and is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick
rubella
a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash
sarcoma
a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues
septic shock
a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body
tinea pedis
a fungal infection that commonly develops between the toes and on the feet
West Nile virus
spread to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
a form of the sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
a lung disease in which it is hard to breathe; COPD
croup
an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between the ages of 2 weeks and 1 year
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance
aphthous ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
ascites
an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
botulism
food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting
cachexia
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
cholera
severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera
cirrhosis
a progressive degenerative disease of the liver
cleft lip
a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development
cleft palate
the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus
Crohn's disease
a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
irritable bowel syndrome
a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea
inflammatory bowel disease
the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines
melena
the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol
salmonellosis
an infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces