58 terms

Corp PR

Where did the College of Propaganda originate?
- born in the 17th Century by the Roman Catholic Church to propagate the faith
According to Dennis Wilcox, who "did advance work" for Jesus Christ?
- St. John the Baptist
How did speech writing in the time of Plato differ from speech writing today?
- Did not differ:
o you must know your audience,
never talk down to them,
impart information that will enlighten their ignorance,
change their opinion,
or confirm their own good judgments
What (and when) was the first systematic public relations effort in the United States?
- 1641: Harvard College sent three preachers on a fund-raising mission to England
o led to the publication of New England's First Fruits, written in MA but printed in London in 1643
o first PR pamphlet or brochure
Where was most of the investigative journalism published between 1900 and 1912?
- most was published in McClures magazine, that era's investigative journalism similar to 60 Minutes
Summarize the important points of Ivy Lee's "Declaration of Principles."
- work done in the open
- supply news
- not an ad agency
- will help editors with facts
- to be open and honest on behalf of business concerns and public institutions
- to supply the US with prompt and accurate info concerning subjects of interest to the public
Know about the relationship between Ivy Lee and John D. Rockefeller.
- personal advisor to Rockefeller
- At the time, the Rockefeller's were being savagely attacked for the strike-breaking activities of their Colorado Fuel and Iron Company.
o During this time, Upton Sinclair called him "Poison Ivy" Lee and this term was to plague Lee for the rest of his life.
o George Creel, who went on to head the US Committee on Public Information during World War I, called Lee a "Poisoner of Public Opinion."
Know about Westinghouse and the first corporate public relations department in 1889
- The first corporate pubic relations department was established by Westinghouse in 1889
Know about the Arthur W. Page Society
• The Arthur W. Page Society is a select membership organization of senior-level public relations and corporate communications executives who seek to enrich and strengthen their profession.
- Approx. 300 members. Most are senior vice presidents of public relations and corporate communications with Fortune 500 companies. Membership also includes CEOs of the world's 25 largest public relations agencies and about a dozen full-time (including Paul Argenti, Janis Forman and Don Wright)
Know the Page Principles
- tell the truth
- prove it with action
- listen to the customer
- manage for tomorrow
- conduct PR as if the entire company depends on it
- realize a company's true character is expressed by its people
- remain calm, patient, good-humored
Explain the Page Principles
• Tell the truth - Let the public know what's happening and provide an accurate picture of the company's character, ideals and principles.
• Prove it with action - Public perception of an organization is determined 90% by what it does and 10% by what it says.
• Listen to the customer - To serve the company well, understand what the public wants and needs. Keep top decision makers and other employees informed about public reaction to company products, policies and practices.
• Manage for tomorrow - Anticipate public reaction and eliminate practices that create difficulties. Generate goodwill
• Conduct public relations as if the entire company depends on it - Corporate relations is a management function. No corporate strategy should be implemented without considering its impact on the public. The public relations professional is a policymaker capable of handling a wide range of corporate communications activities.
• Realize a company's true character is expressed by its people - The strongest opinions - good or bad - about a company are shared by the words and deeds of its employees. As a result, every employee - active or retired - is involved with public relations. It is the responsibility of corporate communications to support each employee's capability and desire to be an honest, knowledgeable ambassador to customers, friends, shareowners and public officials.
• Remain calm, patient and good-humored - Lay the groundwork for public relations miracles with consistent and reasoned attention to information and contacts. This may be difficult with today's demanding 24-hour news cycles and endless number of frequently contentions watchdog organizations. But when a crisis arises, remember, cool heads communicate best.
Know everything we've covered about Ivy Lee and Edward L. Bernays
• Our authors claim they competed for the title of "father of public relations."
• The text claims Lee and Bernays identified the following issues "that still concern us today in corporate communications."
- Keeping track of the larger social, political, economic and cultural climate in which corporations create images and project their voices
- Taking advantage of the "opportune moment," or creating the circumstances for corporate communications
- Understanding and capitalizing on the psychology of constituencies
- Choosing the best mix of communication channels
- Taking responsibility for the ethics of corporate communications
Aristotle's Art of Rhetoric.
• Aristotle (who studied under Plato) developed rhetoric as an art.
• In his work The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle said every speech contains three parts - the speaker, the subject and the hearer.
• Professor Argenti suggests building communication strategy on these same three parts.
- He views the speaker as the organization, the subject as the constituency and the hearer as the message.
- I would point out it is extremely important to also take the receiver(s) into account while strategically planning a corporate communication program.
is the concrete, often visual, manifestation of its reality, including names, brands, symbols, self-presentations, corporate sponsorships, and, most significantly, a company's vision
is the source of inspiration for internal and external constituencies, fostering loyalty, and distinguishing the great companies from the mediocre ones. A company's vision is supported by its core values that should transcend leadership and external circumstances
is the reflection of an organization's identity. In other words, it is how each constituency views an organization. And, in all likelihood, each constituency - be it customers, the community at large, investors, employees, etc. - has a different image of the organization
• Images of a company need to align with the organization's reality for a reputation management program to be successful
Name some logos that have been used effectively
- McDonald's arches
- Nike swoosh
- Datsun to Nissan
What are the four essential components of an effective symbol?
• Memorable
• Appropriate
• Recognizable
• Unique
What four brands does Argenti say have a considerable amount of intangible value?
• Coca-Cola
• Accenture
• Nike
• Target
What was the first company to engage in large-scale corporate advertising?
• AT&T
• Had a corporate advertising campaign in 1908 designed to convince the American people that private monopolies have virtues and should not be subject to massive governmental regulation.
• Company President Theodore Vail supported the ads that combined advocacy for the company's position with employee morale building and enhancement of the company's prestige.
What were the first ads created by the first company to engage in large-scale corp advertising about?
• These ads stressed the quality and services AT&T provided customers, emphasizing that bigness actually helped to create customer-friendly qualities.
• AT&T's earliest corporate ads were defensive responses to public criticism.
• They later played up the dedication of employees and eventually promoted the idea that telephone and democracy were linked
Name the three kinds of corporate advertising according to Argenti
- Image Advertising
- Financial Advertising
- Issue Advocacy
According to Cutlip, Center & Broom what is the "first" target audience?
- employees should be any organization's first target audience.
Know about Don Wright's research indicating the more effective supervisor communication is the less active the grapevine is.
- if you have strong internal communication in place, far more likely to have happier employees
- otherwise, the information will get out via the grapevine and you can't necessarily control the communication
Review the slide "My Research on Employee Communication"
• I have conducted a number of research studies in the area of employee communication. A summary of my findings is:
• Employees prefer to receive information from their immediate supervisor than any other source.
• Front-line supervisors usually are not selected on the basis of their ability to communicate effectively.
• When front-line supervisors fail in effectively delivering information to the workforce, employees frequently seek other sources such as:
- Rumors & the Grapevine
- Information from Union Sources
- Local news media
- Company publications
• New technologies (e-mail, Internet, Intranet and now blogs) are starting to have a huge impact in terms of both use and credibility amongst the employee workforce.
Understand the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
• Also known as the Public Company Accounting Reform & Investor Protection Act of 2002 and commonly called SOX or SarBox.
• US federal law passed in response to a number of major corporate and accounting scandals
- Enron (Arthur Andersen), Tyco and WorldCom
• These scandals resulted in a decline of public trust in accounting and reporting practices.
• The Act contains 11 titles or sections. The first and most important part of the Act establishes a new quasi-public agency, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board which is charged with overseeing, regulating, inspecting and disciplining accounting firms in their roles as auditors of public companies.
• The Act also covers issues such as auditor independence, corporate governance and enhanced financial disclosure.
• Provides the biggest changes to US securities laws since the 1930s.
P.T. Barnum
- promoter and press agent, showman
- staged bizarre events and generated sensational publicity for his circus
- mastery of promotion and press agentry
Leonne Baxter
- One of the first US women to develop a national profile as a successful PR practitioner. Excelled in political communication
Edward L. Bernays
- Worked with CPI, wrote the first book on PR, Crystallizing Public Opinion, in 1923. Taught first PR course at a university (NYU, 1923). Called public relations "engineering public consent." BU PRSSA chapter is named after him.
- ----
- Born in the 1890s and lived more than 100 years. Worked for about 80 years in public relations.
- Worked as a consultant for many companies. Taught the first university-based public relations course at NYU in 1923.
- One of his first jobs was to promote the play Damaged Goods that dealt with society's refusal to acknowledge sexually transmitted diseases.
- Bernays was involved in promoting many social causes and issues.
- Worked for Committee on Public Information during World War I.
- After the war, teamed with CPI colleague Carl Byoir to win support of the American public for Senate passage of a resolution in favor of Lithuanian independence from Russia.
- In particular, Bernays was noted for possibly being the first public relations person to recognize that communication messages need to be targeted to specific, strategic audiences.
- He wrote feature stories designed for different audiences.
- Also, went out of his way to provide copy for newspapers that helped editors fill empty spaces and, in turn, helped advance his client's agendas.
- Was especially noted for his work on the Ivory Soap campaign for Procter and Gamble.
- Popularized the use of Ivory Soap by encouraging children to get involved in soap sculpturing.
- This campaign created "common ground" between P&G and its customers - the company's interest in selling soap and the public's interest in having clean kids engaged in wholesome artistic activity.
- Other Bernays accomplishment in the early years of public relations and corporate communications included:
- His work with the American Tobacco Company.
- Credited with making it acceptable for women to smoke cigarettes in public
- Cigarettes, previously equated only with men became "torches of freedom" for women once it became socially acceptable for them to smoke in public.
- Also worked with General Electric mitigating the bad press this company was receiving for its monopolistic practices in the lamp manufacturing industry.
- Worked on a creative event honoring Thomas Edison on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the light bulb.
- Wrote the books Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923) and Propaganda (1928).
- Coined the term "public relations counsel."
- Bernays thought the mass public needed to be divided into many groups because so many different publics reacted differently to communication messages. He was the first person to articulate this sort of thinking.
- Bernays thought public relations counselors - unlike everyone else - could set themselves apart from the groups to which they might belong and objectively analyze the constituencies who their client's wanted to influence.
- Was related to Sigmund Freud.
- Advocated that public relations people must have high standards of ethics.
- Extremely concerned with how public relations could positively impact society and make the world a better place.
- Strong advocate for licensing public relations practitioners.
Harold Burson
- Founder and Chairman, Burson-Marsteller. Went on to make huge contributions to practice, education and research in the field
Carl Byoir
- Founded Carl Byoir & Associates. Also trained in the Creel Committee
George Creel
- Head of the Committee on Public Information during World War I
Scott M. Cutlip
- Known as "the father of public relations education." Wrote first major text in the field, Effective Public Relations. Taught at Wisconsin and then Georgia
James Drummond Ellsworth
- Publicity Bureau also hired James Drummond Ellsworth, who would later enter corporate public relations with AT&T
Paul Garrett
- (G)arrett = (G)eneral
- first director of PR at General Motors
- emphasized quality performance, public interest, honesty
- other companies followed his lead and got PR depts
Rex Harlow
- Rex-research
- Known as "the father of public relations research." Considered the first full-time public relations educator. Taught a PR course in the School of Education at Stanford University
John W. Hill
- Founded Hill & Knowlton. Sold firm to the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency
Amos Kendall
- Kendall = Kitchen
- lawyer, journalist, politician
- built Democratic Party into a national political power
- supporter of Andrew Jackson: member of Kitchen Cabinet
- basically first press secretary
- conducted opinion polls
Ivy Lee
- Ivy Lee, while working as a news reporter in Wall Street in the early years of muckraking, has sensed business' need for an articulate voice in the court of public opinion. Yet, in the early years of his publicity work, he found businessmen unreceptive to his ideas.. The rising tide of protest against business gave force to his arguments. In 1906, a large industry - anthracite coal - sought Lee's help after taking a licking in public. He became spokesman for the corporations. This role was to make him rich and influential and to gain for him the dubious title of "father of public relations
- ----
- Worked as a journalist in New York City.
- Created a PR firm with George Parker in 1904.
- Hired by coal mine operators in 1906.
- Lee's Declaration of Principles.
- Also worked with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company.
o The railroad industry was known for resisting open communication and had very poor press relations. Lee began the process of inviting reporters to the scene of railway accidents, even paying them to come, and for setting up special facilities at the site for photographers and newspaper reporters. These actions earned Pennsylvania Railroad Company positive press relations.
- About this same time, Lee began working for the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company owned by the Rockefellers.
- Also worked with Macy's, American Tobacco, Lever Brothers, Chrysler Corporation and General Motors.
- Argenti and Forman ask:
- "Was Lee primarily shrewd and dishonest, or was he a man of wisdom, broad learning, and an ability to apply his theoretical statements to the practice of public relations?" (p. 23)
- They answer by suggesting the answer is "ambiguous."
- They also say much of the criticism Lee faced had to do with his willingness to take on legitimate public relations roles with companies facing public opinion difficulties, and point out Lee was "better at defending his client's reputations than his own, refusing to answer his critics directly and promptly." (pp. 24)
Otto Lerbinger
- Just recently retired after teaching public relations courses for 50 years at BU. Developed nation's first graduate degree in public relations. Noted for bringing together an excellent mix of theory and practice
Walter Lippman
liPPman = (19)22, was a newspaper reporter and columnist who wrote the first book focused on the role of the media and public relations in a democratic society, Public Opinion, published in 1922. The book is credited with helping launch the profession of public relations.
Charles Russell Lowell
- railroad exec
- in Civil War
Thomas O. Marvin
• - nation's first publicity firm, The Publicity Bureau, was founded in Boston in 1900 by George Michaelis, Herbert Small and Thomas O. Marvin.
• This firm gained national prominence in 1906 when the nation's railroads hired it to combat adverse regulatory legislation being advocated by Congress
• Publicity Bureau also hired James Drummond Ellsworth, who would later enter corporate public relations with AT&T
George Michaelis
• nation's first publicity firm, The Publicity Bureau, was founded in Boston in 1900 by George Michaelis, Herbert Small and Thomas O. Marvin.
• This firm gained national prominence in 1906 when the nation's railroads hired it to combat adverse regulatory legislation being advocated by Congress
Frank Norris
• NorrIS = octoPUS
-The Octopus
- This book focused on dishonest practices of the railroad trusts
Arthur W. Page
- prez of AT&T
- founded the Page society
- The Arthur W. Page Society is a select membership organization of senior-level public relations and corporate communications executives who seek to enrich and strengthen their profession.
• Approx. 300 members. Most are senior vice presidents of public relations and corporate communications with Fortune 500 companies. Membership also includes CEOs of the world's 25 largest public relations agencies and about a dozen full-time (including Paul Argenti, Janis Forman and Don Wright)
George Parker
- con man, talented hoaxer, exploits passed into pop culture: "if you believe that, I have a bridge to sell you"
- sold NY public landmarks to immigrants, ex: Brooklyn Bridge, Madison Square Garden, MOMA, Grant's Tomb, Statue of Liberty
- convicted of fraud 3 times
- sentenced to life at Sing Sing
David Graham Phillips
- Muckracker
- "The Great God Success"
- exposed corruption in the Senate, esp by Standard Oil Company: "Treason of the Senate"
- helped pass the 17th Amendment: initiated popular instead of state-legislature of US Senators
Joseph Pulitzer
- editorials supported labor in the Homestead strike of 1892
- "the public be informed"
- exposed corruption and
Herbert Small
nation's first publicity firm, The Publicity Bureau, was founded in Boston in 1900 by George Michaelis, Herbert Small and Thomas O. Marvin.
• This firm gained national prominence in 1906 when the nation's railroads hired it to combat adverse regulatory legislation being advocated by Congress
Charles J. Smith
- was one of the first persons hired by a corporation to do what today we call public relations. In 1899 the Mutual Life Insurance company hired him to write news releases to improve its image.
Upton Sinclair
- The Jungle, exposed terrible conditions in the meat packing industry
Lincoln Steffens
- exposed corruption in politics
- Shame of the Cities
Benjamin Sonnenberg
- Sonnenberg = SONG
Suggested Texaco sponsor performances of the Metropolitan Opera Company on national radio - a series that began in 1940 and still continues
Ida Tarbell
- wrote the History of the Standard Oil Company
Theodore N. Vail
- telephone industrialist
- saw telephone service as a public utility and tried to consolidate networks
- defended Bell patents from challenges by Western Union
- wrote essays for AT&T annual reports—wrote a section entitled "Public Relations"
o scope of relations between corporation and the public
o profit was not necessarily the primary objective of private enterprise
Cornelius Vanderbilt
- efforts of these muckrakers, plus other things, led to the response of "The public, the public be dammed," by Cornelius Vanderbilt
William H. Vanderbilt
- asked whether he ran the limited express train for the accommodation of the public
- responded "the public be damned"
- words were twisted and he received bad publicity: clarified answer to say that his aim was the earn a dividend