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PSYCH UNIT 7 LEARNING
Terms in this set (40)
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
CR; a response (after conditioning) that occurs after the CS; in Pavlov's experiment, salivation
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
A term that typically describes a species that no longer has any known living individuals.
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period
(psychology) transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group.
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events, ( or believe they have not control)
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Law of Effect
(psychology) the principle that behaviors are selected by their consequences
A chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not punishment.)
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently
the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed
Varies the amount of time required to elapse before a response will result in SR+.
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Learning by observing others
A therapeutic technique in which the client learns appropriate behavior through imitation of someone else.
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
Behavior that benefits someone else or society but that generally offers no obvious benefit to the person performing it and may even involve some personal risk or sacrifice.
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