Biology Final Pt 1

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Who was the famous naturalist on the HMS Beagle?
a. Carl Jung
b. Alfred Russell
c. Charles Darwin
d. Charles Brown
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Terms in this set (64)
In the approach to systematics called _______, common ancestry is the primary criterion used to classify organisms. a. Cladistics b. Phylogeny c. PolyphyletyCladisticsA taxon is _______ only if it consists of an ancestral species and all of its decendants. a. Polyphyletic b. Monophyletic c. ParaphyleticMonophyleticNatural selection acts on individuals, but only populations evolve. a. True b. FalseTrue___________ is a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations. a. Macroevolution b. Microevolution c. Neither answer is correctMicroevolutionThe mechanisms that cause allele frequency to change are ______. a. Natural selection, Genetic drift, and Gene flow b. Natural selection and Gene flow c. Genetic drift d. Gene flowNatural selection, Genetic drift, and Gene flowIn multicellular organisms, any mutation in any cell line can be passed on to offspring. a. True b. FalseFalseNatural selection can only act on phenotypic variation that _________. a. Has a genetic component b. Enhances the survival of an individual c. Has an environmental componentHas a genetic componentA(n) ______ is a change in nucleotide sequence of DNA. a. Adaptation b. Mutation c. Allele d. GeneMutationA __________ is a localized group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. a. Gene pool b. Population c. Taxon d. Gene flowPopulationA _______consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population. a. Mutation b. Gene pool c. Gene flow d. TaxonGene PoolThe Hardy-Weinberg principle states that the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation to generation, provided that ___________are at work. a. Only Mendelian segregations of alleles b. Only Mendelian recombinations of alleles c. only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles d. mutationsonly Mendelian segregation and recombination of allelesA population with a gene pool in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is evolving. a. True b. FalseFalseWhich of the following is not one of the five conditions that must be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? a. No mutations b. Random mating c. Continuing gene flow d. No natural selectionContinuing gene flowGenetic drift tends to reduce genetic variation through losses of alleles, especially in small populations a. True b. FalseTrue___________is the process by which one species splits into two or more species a. Speciation b. Macroevolution c. Diversity d. SpecificationSpeciationThe _________ states that a species is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring; they do not breed successfully with other populations a. biological species concept b. morphological species concept c. ecological species concept d. phylogenetic species conceptbiological species conceptTwo patterns of evolution have been found in the fossil record namely, punctuated equilibria and _______. a. Intermittent change b. Gradual change c. Static change d. HybridizationGradual ChangeWhich one of the following is a prezygotic barrier that results in reproductive isolation? a. Reduced hybrid fertility b. Hybrid breakdown c. Habitat isolationHabitat IsolationA prerequisite for evolution is __________ in inheritable traits. a. Constancy b. VariationVariationNot present in all bacteria, this cell covering enables cells that possess it to resist the defenses of the host organisms A. Endospore B. Sex pilus C. Flagellum D. Cell wall E. CapsuleCapsulePenicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits enzymes from catalyzing the synthesis of peptidoglycan, so which prokaryotes should be most vulnerable to inhibition by penicillin A. Mycoplasmas B. Gram-positive bacteria C. Archaea D. Gram-negative bacteria E. Endospore-bearingGram-positive bacteriaOrganisms can be categorized by their nutrition, based on how they obtained ________. A. Caffeine and Chocolate B. Energy and Carbon C. Nitrogen and Carbon D. Energy and NitrogenEnergy and CarbonGiven what you know about obtaining energy and carbon, humans are ________. A. Photoautotrophs B. Photoheterotrophs C. Chemoheterotrophs D. ChemoautotrophsChemoheterotrophsWhat two organelles in eukaryotic organisms evolved by endosymbiosis? A. Nucleus and mitochondria B. Mitochondria and chloroplast C. Chloroplast and Golgi apparatus D. Chloroplast and nucleusMitochondria and chloroplastOne way that multicellular organisms differ from colonial organisms is ______. A. They have more than one cell B. The cells are more specialized C. The cells are dependent on other cells D. A and B E. B and CB and CThe amount and direction of movement of water in plants can always be predicted by measuring which of the following? A. pressure potential B. number of aquaporins C. proton gradients D. dissolved solutes E. water potential (ψ)Water potentialThe value for Ψ (water potential) in root tissue was found to be -0.15 MPa. If you take the root tissue and place it in a 0.1 M solution of sucrose (Ψ = -0.23), net water flow would A. be from the tissue into the sucrose solution. B. be from the sucrose solution into the tissue. C. be in both directions and the concentrations would remain equal. D. occur only as ATP was hydrolyzed in the tissue. E. be impossible to determine from the values given here.Be from the tissue into the sucrose solution.Plant _______ are chemical signals that modify or control one or more specific physiological processes within a plant A. nutrients B. xylem C. hormones D. enzymesHormones______ are any chemical that promotes plant cell elongation. A. Auxin B. Gibberellins C. Ethylene D. CytokininsAuxin____________ are cycles that are about 24 hours long and are governed by an internal "clock." A. Days B. Circadian rhythms C. PhotoperiodsCircadian rhythmsPlants that flower when a light period is shorter than a critical length are called ________. A. short-day plants B. long-day plants C. day-neutral plants D. circadian plantsShort-day plantsAn example of a biotic stress is ________. A. drought B. flooding C. cold stress D. herbivoresHerbivoresResponse to gravity is known as _________. A. gravitropism B. thigomotropism C. phototropism D. None of the other answers are correct.GravitropismThe most recent common ancestor of all land plants was probably similar to modern-day members of which group? A. red algae B. charophytes C. brown algae D. angiospermsCharophytesWhich of these key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophytes? A. Alternation of generations (with multicellular, dependent embryos) B. Walled spores produced in sporangia C. Multicellular gametangia D. Apical meristems E. All are key traits.All are key traitsPlant spores are produced directly by A. Sporophytes B. Gametes C. Gametophytes D. Gametangia E. SeedsSporophytesA (or An) ______ is a group of cells consisting of one or more cell types that together perform a specialized function. A. Tissue B. Organ C. Phloem D. None of theseTissueWater and minerals absorbed by the shoot system.0 A. True B. FalseFalseThe _______ is found at the top of an angiosperm. A. Petiole B. Axillary bud C. Node D. Apical budApical BudMost terrestrial plants form mycorrhizal associations, which increase mineral absorption. A. True B. FalseTrueXylem transports organic nutrients from where they are made to where they are needed. A. True B. FalseFalseWater-conducting cells of the xylem are dead at functional maturity. A. True B. FalseTrueMeristems generate new cells for growth and control the developmental phases and life spans of plants. A. True B. FalseTrueThe epidermis in leaves is interrupted by ________, which allow CO2 and O2 exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells in a leaf. A. Vessels B. Stomata C. Mesophyll D. None of theseStomataFlowers, double fertilization, and fruits are unique features of the angiosperm life cycle. a. True b. FalseTrueCells of a developing plant synthesize different proteins and diverge in structure and function even though they have a common genome. Cellular differentiation depends on gene expression, but is determined by ________. a. Position b. Gene c. Nutrients d. Water contentPositionCurrent evidence indicates that animals evolved from single-celled eukaryotes similar to present-day choanoflagellates. a. True b. FalseTrueSponges lack true tissues, groups of cells that function as a unit a. True b. FalseTrueThe diversity of large animals increased dramatically during the "Cambrian explosion" a. True b. FalseTrueZoologists sometimes categorize animals according to a body plan, a set of morphological and developmental traits. There are three important aspects of animal body plans. Which one of the following is not one? a. Symmetry b. Tissues c. Body cavities d. All are important aspects.All are important aspectsModern humans, H. sapiens, originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago and colonized the rest of the world from there a. True b. FalseTrueEgg laying mammals are _________. a. Monotremes b. Marsupials c. Eutherians d. AviansMonotremesA flower's stamen consists of an _______ and a filament. a. Stigma b. Anther c. Petal d. SepalAntherIn angiosperms, pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. a. True b. FalseTrue