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different molecules made up of the same number and kids of atoms, but aren't arranged the same

geometric isomer

an isomer in which the location of the double bond cannot change


isomers that are mirror images of each other

charged molecules are hydrophilic because

water is also charged

carbon can be...


functional group

lone atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon atoms of organic compounds that act as a unit.

alt. definition of functional group

clusters of atoms that operate as a unit

functional group characteristics

- are the reactive parts of organic molecules
- affect the characteristics of organic molecules

hydroxyl group


characteristics of the hydroxyl group

-chemicals that contain this functional group are aka. alcohols

carbonyl group

carbon double bonded to oxygen

aldehyde carbonyl

has the carbonyl at either end of the molecule

ketone carbonyl

has the carbonyl not at the ends of the molecule

the ending "al"

refers to carbonyls ... USUALLY

a molecule can contain...

more than one functional group

carboxyl group

A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.

most compounds containing a carboxyl groups are an...because...

acid because they donate hydrogen ions when dissolved in water

ionized version of carboxyl

negatively charged, because it has given up a hydrogen ion

amine group


amino acid

formed when an amine group and a carboxyl group are together

ionized version of an amino acid has...

3 hydrogen ions

phosphate group

a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms (PO4), negatively charged.

5 categories of reactions

1. functional group transfer
2. electron transfer
3. condensation
4. hydrolysis

functional group transfer

transfer of a complete functional group


reaction in which water is released, opposite is hydrolysis


splitting two molecules up by adding water

5 master molecules

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids


composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in 1:2:1 ration

basic subunit of a carbodydrate

saccharide, formed when carbon hydrogen and oxygen are put together

ending- ose


all carbs are made up of

simple sugars linked together


one sugar


two sugars


three sugars


more than three sugars (lot)


only a few more than three sugars

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