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36 terms

McFaden Bio Organic Chemistry 2

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isomer
different molecules made up of the same number and kids of atoms, but aren't arranged the same
geometric isomer
an isomer in which the location of the double bond cannot change
enantiomer
isomers that are mirror images of each other
charged molecules are hydrophilic because
water is also charged
carbon can be...
numbered
functional group
lone atoms or clusters of atoms covalently bonded to carbon atoms of organic compounds that act as a unit.
alt. definition of functional group
clusters of atoms that operate as a unit
functional group characteristics
- are the reactive parts of organic molecules
- affect the characteristics of organic molecules
hydroxyl group
OH-
characteristics of the hydroxyl group
-chemicals that contain this functional group are aka. alcohols
carbonyl group
carbon double bonded to oxygen
aldehyde carbonyl
has the carbonyl at either end of the molecule
ketone carbonyl
has the carbonyl not at the ends of the molecule
the ending "al"
refers to carbonyls ... USUALLY
a molecule can contain...
more than one functional group
carboxyl group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
most compounds containing a carboxyl groups are an...because...
acid because they donate hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
ionized version of carboxyl
negatively charged, because it has given up a hydrogen ion
amine group
NH2
amino acid
formed when an amine group and a carboxyl group are together
ionized version of an amino acid has...
3 hydrogen ions
phosphate group
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms (PO4), negatively charged.
5 categories of reactions
1. functional group transfer
2. electron transfer
3. condensation
4. hydrolysis
functional group transfer
transfer of a complete functional group
condensation
reaction in which water is released, opposite is hydrolysis
hydrolysis
splitting two molecules up by adding water
5 master molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
carbohydrates
composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in 1:2:1 ration
basic subunit of a carbodydrate
saccharide, formed when carbon hydrogen and oxygen are put together
ending- ose
sugar
all carbs are made up of
simple sugars linked together
monosaccharide
one sugar
disaccharide
two sugars
trisaccharide
three sugars
polysaccharide
more than three sugars (lot)
oligosaccharide
only a few more than three sugars