42 terms

Middle Ages: Feudalism, 100 year war, Crusades

Blended 9th Grade Global Studies
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Dark Ages
Medieval, began with fall of Rome in 476, lasted until about 800 in Western Europe
Barbarian Tribes:
Roman term for non-Latin speaking; Germanic people from NE Europe, pushed west by Huns from Asia and Vikings from North
Conditions in Europe:
CHAOS - Unorganized (no gov't)
- People were uneducated (no school)
- People were poor (no trade)
Fall of Rome: organization
no centralized government, roads crumbled, trade, new languages (romance), Church the only common
Charlemagne:
Exception was the Frankish Kingdom under Charles the Great:
Charlemagne Accomplishments
- Tied to Roman Catholic Church
- Supported education
- Began feudalism in France
Institution:
only organizing force in Europe, the main tool for communication which gave the Church great power
education:
Monastic System, monks, copied books and preserved knowledge
Hierarchy
Instructions come from God, through the Pope, down to the people
Heresy -
speaking out against the church or disagreeing with doctrine
Excommunication -
People were forced to leave the Church (not in communion)
Gothic Architecture:
"Gothic" style develops, very detailed and beautiful
Cathedrals -
huge churches, dedicated to the glory of God, visual tool to understand Christianity
Art -
used to teach people (usually illiterate) about Christianity; artwork and stained glass windows
Catholic Church Influence in medieval times spiritually :
taught how to get to heaven
Catholic Church Influence in medieval times politically
had great influence and power over Kings
Catholic Church Influence in medieval times economically
3. people had to pay a tithe (tax) of their income to the church
Lord
Anyone above you in the feudal system
Made rules
Vassal
Anyone below you in a feudal system
Followed the Lord's rules
Serf:
Someone who belonged to the manor (workers) not allowed to depart the
manor - "bound to the land"
Knights:
Noble Warriors - protectors of the kingdom, they were nobles, called "Sir", position of respect - highly trained
Chivalry:
Moral Code of Conduct that required knights to possess certain qualities: bravery, loyalty, courtesy, generosity and charity
Why Feudalism is considered a political system:
Lords were the leaders, lawmakers and judges, any complaints or disputes were resolved (judged) by the Lord
Why Feudalism is considered to be a social system:
A Everyone was ranked according to their social class (see pyramid at top of the page)
Why Feudalism is considered to be an economic system:
The system ensured that everyone got what they needed (ensured everyone's survival)
The Structure of the Church
Pope (Rome)
Archbishops (Cardinals)
Bishops
Priests
People
The church influence on the people:
- Spiritually taught people how to get to heaven
- Politically had great influence and even some powers over Kings
- Economically people had to pay a tithe (tax) of 10% of their income/crops to the church
The Crusades:
- A series of "Holy Wars" (1100's - 1200's)
- European Christians vs. Muslims (Seljuk Turks mostly)
Causes of the Crusades:
1. Christians desired to take back the Holy Land
2. More power for Christianity
3. Believed that their sins would be forgiven and that they could go to heaven
4. To gain wealth and land
5. Serfs hoped to escape feudalism
Impact of the Crusades:
- Christians were mostly unsuccessful in permanently retaking the Holy Land
- They were successful in getting things that changed their culture
Crusades impact on learning:
- They learned many ideas from the Muslims: math, science, literature, art and medicine (some came from China)
- They were reintroduced to Greek and Roman ideas: art, philosophy and literature, that were preserved by the Muslims and Byzantine Empire
Crusades impact on Trade:
- HUGE impact on trade - crusaders brought back many new products: spices, silk, cotton, fruits, dyes, medicines
- The demand for these products in Europe started new markets beginning the growth of towns again
The Crusades overall impact on Europe:
1. Learning suddenly increased
2. "Beginning of the end" for feudalism
3. The economy got better
4. Setting up a base for the Renaissance
5. Created legacy of religious tensions between Christians and Muslims
Pope Urban II: 1095 A.D.
- Called people to fight in the First Crusade
Richard the Lion-Hearted: 1189 A.D.
- King of England, led the Third Crusade
Saladin: 1100's
- Great warrior/leader of the Turkish Muslims, reunited the Muslim world against the Christian advances
The Plague
It was a disease with no cure (Bubonic Plague - the Black Death) that began in the 1340's
How the Plague spread?
spread to Europe, by fleas on rats, from Asia by traders; worst effect in the newly crowded cities
Impact of the Plague on Europe socially:
- killed ⅓ of all Europeans - people began to question the power of the Church
Impact of the Plague on Europe economically:
survivors gained wealth
They received what the dead left behind
People could demand to be paid in wages (money) because workers were in high demand
Impact of the Plague on Europe politically:
- End of feudalism
Peasants revolted
Led to the growth of new political systems (monarchs [kings] had more "national" power)
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