How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

40 terms

Ch. 45: Urinary Elimination

definitions
STUDY
PLAY
nephron
tiny filtering unit of the kidney, the functional unit of the kidney
proteinuria
the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine
glomerulus
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place
glomerular capillaries
Permit the filtration of water, glucose, amino acid, urea, creatine, and major electrolytes into Bowman's capsule. Filters approximately 125 ml; Where filtration of blood occurs
bowmans capsule
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
erythropoietin
A hormone produced and released by the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow.
renin
enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
prostaglandin
helps to maintain renal blood flow through vasodilation
bone mineralization
main function of calcium
end stage renal disease (ESRD)
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys
micturition
Process of emptying the bladder; urination; voiding
renal calculus
a kidney stone
reflex incontinence
loss of voluntary control, micturition reflex pathway is intact
nocturia
excessive urination at night
polyuria
renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine
oliguria
production of an abnormally small amount of urine; urine output < intake
anuria
inability to urinate; no output
urinary diversion
surgical formation (temporary or permanent) that bypasses the bladder, has a stoma on the abdomen to drain the urine
urinary retention
is an accumulation of urine resulting from an inability of the bladder to empty properly
Urinary Tract Infection
hospital-acquired result from catheterization or surgical manipulation, Escherichia coli most common pathogen
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
ileal loop or conduit
ureters are implanted into the isolated segment of ileum and used as a conduit for continuous drainage, the client wears a stomal pouch continuously
nephrostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
kidney cortex
-contains renal corpuscles (glomerular [Bowman's] capsules) and glomeruli, convoluted tubules, straight tubules and medullary rays.,
- superficial kidney region, lighter in color, rich vascular supply
kidney medulla
-Renal pyramids situated with its base in the cortex and its apex in the medulla. Apices of renal pyramids form the papilla, projecting into a minor calyx. Also contains the loops of Henle and collecting tubules of nephrons. Renal sinus between the pyramids (renal artery and vein between in interlobar vessels).
-, the darker colored, inner region of the kidney
kidney pelvis
flat, funnel-shaped tube lateral to the hilus within the renal sinus; urine drains into this
renal ischemia
decrease blood flow to the kidney
peritoneal dialysis
method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; a catheter inserted in the peritoneal cavity delivers cleansing fluid (dialysate) that is washed in and out in cycles
hemodialysis
dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; process uses 'artificial kidney'
urgency
feeling of the need to void immediately
dysuria
painful or difficult urination
hematuria
the presence of blood in the urine
residual urine
greater than 100mL of urine that remains in the bladder after voiding
random urine collection
Collect during normal voiding from an indwelling catheter or urinary diversion collection bag. Use a clean specimen cup
functional incontinence
the person has bladder control but cannot use the toilet in time
enuresis
BEDWETTING
specific gravity
the density of a substance relative to the density of water
stress incontinence
urinary incontinence that occurs when involuntary pressure is put on the bladder by coughing or laughing or sneezing or lifting or straining
urge incontinence
urinary incontinence that is generally attributable to involuntary contracts of the bladder muscle resulting in an urgent need to urinate accompanied by a sudden loss of urine
mixed incontinence
symptoms of urge and stress incontinence are present, although one type may predominate