Create an account
large, regular waves caused by synchronized firing of neurons; occur when person is awake but relaxed
small, irregular waves caused by unsynchronized firing of neurons; occur wiht "focused mental activity or emotional excitement"
REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
when muscles are most relaxed, but EEG looks like beta waves (wakefulness), breathing and heart rate increase, twitching in small muscles of fingers and face, eyes move a lot
what changes with each successive sleep cycle in a night
more time in REM and stage 1, less time in stages 2, 3, and 4 (less time in 4 before less time in 3, etc)
correlation between REM sleep and dreams
more time in REM sleep causes more elaborate, vivid, detailed dreams
functions of sleep (theories)
preservation and protection, brain maintence theory, body restoration, memory consolidation
preservation and protection theory of sleep
if it's dangerous outside, you hide well, and you don't need to move around, you sleep more (large grazing animals sleep little because they need to spend so much time eating and can't hide, small meat eaters sleep least because they can hide and don't spend much time eating)
body restoration theory
growth, repair of wear and tear of day, restore tissues (sleep helps maintain metabolism)
how does strength of theories compare
body restoration theory not as strong as preservation and protection theory
flaw of body restoration theory
could die from sleep deprivation, but really don't need that much sleep to survive
brain maintence theory of sleep
REM sleep keeps exercising some neural circuits while sleeping because synapses can degenerate if they go too long without being active
evidence for brain maintenence theory of sleep
the longer a person or animal sleeps, the more sleep is interrupted by REM and REM occurs to a much greater degree in fetuses and infants than in adults (infants kick more to excersise new motor pathways)
functions of dreams
theorized that dreams provide means of rehearsing and resolving threatening experiences that have happened or could happen in a person's life
side effect theory of dreams
during REM sleep neurons in memory retreival and emotion become activated, which causes hallucinations. some thought in REM sleep makes brain try to make sense of hallucinations
what is argument for psychoanalyitic value of dreams?
dreams contain elements based onthe dreamer's experience, normally occur at a time of reduced mental capacity, which allows ideas that are normally supressed to arise
a relatively rare condition in which people who seep much less than most people but don't feel tired during the day
what does increase in nonsomnia usually correlate with
physical and pyschological health, happiness, energeticness
what theory does nonsomnia refute
restoration theory of sleep (little sleep needed for healthy lives)
a relatively common condition in which someone who as a normal drive for sleep but who has great difficulty sleeping at night, feels tired during the day as a result of not sleeping
when in a study where people voluntarilly stay awake for long periods of time, what happens?
sleepiness waxes and wanes in accordance with inner clock, much harder to stay awake at night and during early morning than during the rest of the day, people becin to experience distorted perceptions and extreme irritability
any repetitive biological change that continues at a close to 24-hour cycle in the absence of external cues
problem-solving approach to dreams
dreams reflect ongoing preoccupations of waking life, help us find creative solutions to problems
cognitive-process approach to dreams
same processes occur when asleep as when awake, just cut off from sensory input and feedback
side-effects theory of dreams says that
dreams don't serve a function but are side effects of REM sleep (which DOES serve a purpose)
pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to situations and events that have relevance to important goals and motives; subjective feeling directed towards some object
What are the evolutionary adaptations of emotions
affect our own behavior and commmunicate our needs/intentions to others
what are the universally recognized emotions?
anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt, and embarrassment
james-lange feedback theory
percieve stimulus -> experience specific pattern of physical arousal -> interpret pattern of physiological arousal as particular emotion
schachter's cognitive theory
percieve stimulus -> nonspecific physiological arousal -> interpret situation to label the emotion
what determines the type of emotions experienced in schachter's cognitive theory
cognitions about the context
what determines the intensity of the emotion experienced in schachter's cognitive theory
the degree of arousal
Facial Feedback Theory proposed
basic emotions associated with different facial expressions, so sensory feedback from facial expressions causes emotional experience
experiment conducted to prove facial feedback theory
hold pencil in mouth with teeth vs with lips caused different emotions
how does amygdala work
receives sensory input subcortically, judges whether response needed, generates bodily reaction
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together