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condition of relative unresponsiveness to the environment

how many sleep stages are there


how are sleep stages determined

by EEG activity and other indicies

alpha waves

large, regular waves caused by synchronized firing of neurons; occur when person is awake but relaxed

beta waves

small, irregular waves caused by unsynchronized firing of neurons; occur wiht "focused mental activity or emotional excitement"

delta waves

very large, slow, irregular waves

which sleep stages are "true sleep"

stages 2-4

stage 1

brief transition stage, drifting on the edge of conciousness when first falling asleep

in stage 2 sleep

minor noises not noticed

in stage 3 sleep

muscle tension declines, breathing and pulse slow down, delta waves begin

in stage 4 sleep

deep sleep, delta waves more prevalent

REM sleep (rapid eye movement)

when muscles are most relaxed, but EEG looks like beta waves (wakefulness), breathing and heart rate increase, twitching in small muscles of fingers and face, eyes move a lot

when do most dreams occur

during REM sleep

other name for REM sleep

emergent stage 1 sleep

what changes with each successive sleep cycle in a night

more time in REM and stage 1, less time in stages 2, 3, and 4 (less time in 4 before less time in 3, etc)

when does the deepest non-rem sleep occur?

in the first cycle or two

order of sleep stages in one sleep cycle


correlation between REM sleep and dreams

more time in REM sleep causes more elaborate, vivid, detailed dreams

who is stage model designed for

the population in general, there will always be people who deviate

functions of sleep (theories)

preservation and protection, brain maintence theory, body restoration, memory consolidation

preservation and protection theory of sleep

if it's dangerous outside, you hide well, and you don't need to move around, you sleep more (large grazing animals sleep little because they need to spend so much time eating and can't hide, small meat eaters sleep least because they can hide and don't spend much time eating)

body restoration theory

growth, repair of wear and tear of day, restore tissues (sleep helps maintain metabolism)

how does strength of theories compare

body restoration theory not as strong as preservation and protection theory

flaw of body restoration theory

could die from sleep deprivation, but really don't need that much sleep to survive

brain maintence theory of sleep

REM sleep keeps exercising some neural circuits while sleeping because synapses can degenerate if they go too long without being active

evidence for brain maintenence theory of sleep

the longer a person or animal sleeps, the more sleep is interrupted by REM and REM occurs to a much greater degree in fetuses and infants than in adults (infants kick more to excersise new motor pathways)

functions of dreams

theorized that dreams provide means of rehearsing and resolving threatening experiences that have happened or could happen in a person's life

side effect theory of dreams

during REM sleep neurons in memory retreival and emotion become activated, which causes hallucinations. some thought in REM sleep makes brain try to make sense of hallucinations

what is argument for psychoanalyitic value of dreams?

dreams contain elements based onthe dreamer's experience, normally occur at a time of reduced mental capacity, which allows ideas that are normally supressed to arise

when does memory consolidation happen

during slow-wave sleep


a relatively rare condition in which people who seep much less than most people but don't feel tired during the day

what does increase in nonsomnia usually correlate with

physical and pyschological health, happiness, energeticness

what theory does nonsomnia refute

restoration theory of sleep (little sleep needed for healthy lives)


a relatively common condition in which someone who as a normal drive for sleep but who has great difficulty sleeping at night, feels tired during the day as a result of not sleeping

when in a study where people voluntarilly stay awake for long periods of time, what happens?

sleepiness waxes and wanes in accordance with inner clock, much harder to stay awake at night and during early morning than during the rest of the day, people becin to experience distorted perceptions and extreme irritability

circadian rhythm

any repetitive biological change that continues at a close to 24-hour cycle in the absence of external cues

who proposed psychoanalytic theory of dreans


what did psychoanalytic theory of dreams propse

dreams represent disguised unconcious wishes

problem-solving approach to dreams

dreams reflect ongoing preoccupations of waking life, help us find creative solutions to problems

cognitive-process approach to dreams

same processes occur when asleep as when awake, just cut off from sensory input and feedback

side-effects theory of dreams aka

activation-synthesis theory

side-effects theory of dreams says that

dreams don't serve a function but are side effects of REM sleep (which DOES serve a purpose)


pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to situations and events that have relevance to important goals and motives; subjective feeling directed towards some object

What are the evolutionary adaptations of emotions

affect our own behavior and commmunicate our needs/intentions to others

what are the universally recognized emotions?

anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt, and embarrassment

whose studies identified the descrete emotions?


self-concious emotions

emotions where the self is the object

examples of self-concious emotions

pride, shame, guilt, embarassment

how does chronology of emotional development take place

self-concious emotions develop after others

common-sense view of emotion

percieve stimulus -> experience emotion -> experience physical arousal

james-lange feedback theory

percieve stimulus -> experience specific pattern of physical arousal -> interpret pattern of physiological arousal as particular emotion

examples of specific pattern of physical arousal

pounding heart, etc

schachter's cognitive theory

percieve stimulus -> nonspecific physiological arousal -> interpret situation to label the emotion

what determines the type of emotions experienced in schachter's cognitive theory

cognitions about the context

what determines the intensity of the emotion experienced in schachter's cognitive theory

the degree of arousal

implications of schachter's theory

it is possible for people to misattribute their arousal

who conducted swinging bridge study

Dutton & Aron

study done to prove misattribution of arousal

swinging bridge study

Facial Feedback Theory proposed

basic emotions associated with different facial expressions, so sensory feedback from facial expressions causes emotional experience

who proposed facial feedback theory


experiment conducted to prove facial feedback theory

hold pencil in mouth with teeth vs with lips caused different emotions

what is amygdala needed for

unconcious emotional responses

how does amygdala work

receives sensory input subcortically, judges whether response needed, generates bodily reaction

prefrontal cortex needed for

full concious experience of emotions, planned action

emotions that evoke approach cause brain activity where

in left prefrontal cortex

emotions that evoke withdrawal cause brain activity where

in right prefrontal cortex

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