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66 terms

Exam 3 Chapter 6: Sleep and Emotion

STUDY
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sleep
condition of relative unresponsiveness to the environment
how many sleep stages are there
5
how are sleep stages determined
by EEG activity and other indicies
alpha waves
large, regular waves caused by synchronized firing of neurons; occur when person is awake but relaxed
beta waves
small, irregular waves caused by unsynchronized firing of neurons; occur wiht "focused mental activity or emotional excitement"
delta waves
very large, slow, irregular waves
which sleep stages are "true sleep"
stages 2-4
stage 1
brief transition stage, drifting on the edge of conciousness when first falling asleep
in stage 2 sleep
minor noises not noticed
in stage 3 sleep
muscle tension declines, breathing and pulse slow down, delta waves begin
in stage 4 sleep
deep sleep, delta waves more prevalent
REM sleep (rapid eye movement)
when muscles are most relaxed, but EEG looks like beta waves (wakefulness), breathing and heart rate increase, twitching in small muscles of fingers and face, eyes move a lot
when do most dreams occur
during REM sleep
other name for REM sleep
emergent stage 1 sleep
what changes with each successive sleep cycle in a night
more time in REM and stage 1, less time in stages 2, 3, and 4 (less time in 4 before less time in 3, etc)
when does the deepest non-rem sleep occur?
in the first cycle or two
order of sleep stages in one sleep cycle
1,2,3,4,3,2,REM
correlation between REM sleep and dreams
more time in REM sleep causes more elaborate, vivid, detailed dreams
who is stage model designed for
the population in general, there will always be people who deviate
functions of sleep (theories)
preservation and protection, brain maintence theory, body restoration, memory consolidation
preservation and protection theory of sleep
if it's dangerous outside, you hide well, and you don't need to move around, you sleep more (large grazing animals sleep little because they need to spend so much time eating and can't hide, small meat eaters sleep least because they can hide and don't spend much time eating)
body restoration theory
growth, repair of wear and tear of day, restore tissues (sleep helps maintain metabolism)
how does strength of theories compare
body restoration theory not as strong as preservation and protection theory
flaw of body restoration theory
could die from sleep deprivation, but really don't need that much sleep to survive
brain maintence theory of sleep
REM sleep keeps exercising some neural circuits while sleeping because synapses can degenerate if they go too long without being active
evidence for brain maintenence theory of sleep
the longer a person or animal sleeps, the more sleep is interrupted by REM and REM occurs to a much greater degree in fetuses and infants than in adults (infants kick more to excersise new motor pathways)
functions of dreams
theorized that dreams provide means of rehearsing and resolving threatening experiences that have happened or could happen in a person's life
side effect theory of dreams
during REM sleep neurons in memory retreival and emotion become activated, which causes hallucinations. some thought in REM sleep makes brain try to make sense of hallucinations
what is argument for psychoanalyitic value of dreams?
dreams contain elements based onthe dreamer's experience, normally occur at a time of reduced mental capacity, which allows ideas that are normally supressed to arise
when does memory consolidation happen
during slow-wave sleep
nonsomnia
a relatively rare condition in which people who seep much less than most people but don't feel tired during the day
what does increase in nonsomnia usually correlate with
physical and pyschological health, happiness, energeticness
what theory does nonsomnia refute
restoration theory of sleep (little sleep needed for healthy lives)
insomnia
a relatively common condition in which someone who as a normal drive for sleep but who has great difficulty sleeping at night, feels tired during the day as a result of not sleeping
when in a study where people voluntarilly stay awake for long periods of time, what happens?
sleepiness waxes and wanes in accordance with inner clock, much harder to stay awake at night and during early morning than during the rest of the day, people becin to experience distorted perceptions and extreme irritability
circadian rhythm
any repetitive biological change that continues at a close to 24-hour cycle in the absence of external cues
who proposed psychoanalytic theory of dreans
Frued
what did psychoanalytic theory of dreams propse
dreams represent disguised unconcious wishes
problem-solving approach to dreams
dreams reflect ongoing preoccupations of waking life, help us find creative solutions to problems
cognitive-process approach to dreams
same processes occur when asleep as when awake, just cut off from sensory input and feedback
side-effects theory of dreams aka
activation-synthesis theory
side-effects theory of dreams says that
dreams don't serve a function but are side effects of REM sleep (which DOES serve a purpose)
emotion
pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to situations and events that have relevance to important goals and motives; subjective feeling directed towards some object
What are the evolutionary adaptations of emotions
affect our own behavior and commmunicate our needs/intentions to others
what are the universally recognized emotions?
anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt, and embarrassment
whose studies identified the descrete emotions?
ekman
self-concious emotions
emotions where the self is the object
examples of self-concious emotions
pride, shame, guilt, embarassment
how does chronology of emotional development take place
self-concious emotions develop after others
common-sense view of emotion
percieve stimulus -> experience emotion -> experience physical arousal
james-lange feedback theory
percieve stimulus -> experience specific pattern of physical arousal -> interpret pattern of physiological arousal as particular emotion
examples of specific pattern of physical arousal
pounding heart, etc
schachter's cognitive theory
percieve stimulus -> nonspecific physiological arousal -> interpret situation to label the emotion
what determines the type of emotions experienced in schachter's cognitive theory
cognitions about the context
what determines the intensity of the emotion experienced in schachter's cognitive theory
the degree of arousal
implications of schachter's theory
it is possible for people to misattribute their arousal
who conducted swinging bridge study
Dutton & Aron
study done to prove misattribution of arousal
swinging bridge study
Facial Feedback Theory proposed
basic emotions associated with different facial expressions, so sensory feedback from facial expressions causes emotional experience
who proposed facial feedback theory
Ekman
experiment conducted to prove facial feedback theory
hold pencil in mouth with teeth vs with lips caused different emotions
what is amygdala needed for
unconcious emotional responses
how does amygdala work
receives sensory input subcortically, judges whether response needed, generates bodily reaction
prefrontal cortex needed for
full concious experience of emotions, planned action
emotions that evoke approach cause brain activity where
in left prefrontal cortex
emotions that evoke withdrawal cause brain activity where
in right prefrontal cortex