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a type of thinking in which one uses specific observations or facts to infer some new principle; hypothesis construction
a tool of formal logic in which one derives the consequences that MUST follow a set of premises; logical proof
what is an analogy
similarity in behavior, function, or relationship between entities or situations that are otehrwise diferent
inductive reasoning puzzle
are there more letters in english starting with "r" or with "r" as the third letter
judging the likelihood of an event based on how readily available other instances are in memory
preferring or seeking information that confirms pre-existing positions or beliefs while ignoring contradictory evidence
problems that are specifically designed to be unsolvable unless one looks at them in a different way
examples of insight problems
multilated checker board problem, candle, tacks, box, bulletein board problem
thinking about objects as only for their intended use; must be overcome to solve insight problems
activation of mental concepts to a level that does not reach mental conciousness but still makes concept more available for forming connections
"broaden and build" theory of positive emotions states that
negative emotions narrow one's focus of perception and think only of well-learned ways of responding, while positive emotions broaden one's scope of perception and thought and increase creativity (playfulness)
the variable capacity that underlies individual differences in reasoning, solving problems, and acquiring new knowledge
spearman's theory of intelligence
intelligence consists of two factors: "g", general mental ability and "s", abilities specific to individual tests
what did cattell propose?
that there are two types of "g"; fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
the ability to solve novel problems, to see relationships among stimuli, and to reason (cannot be taught)
how is crystallized intelligence influenced by culture?
it is learned, so different facts are taught in different cultures
coming up with lots of far fetched alternitives without focusing so much on practicality
how does each type of intelligence change over time
fluid intelligence drops much more quickly as you get older, crystallized intelligence is maintained
predictable world bias
we are so predisposed to find order in our world that we are inclined to see or anticipate order even where it doesn't exist
thought which usessymbols that were acquired originally in the form of words (but can no longer be recognized as words)
the effects that language has on the ways that we percieve, remember, and think about the world
absolute frame of reference
a frame of reference that does not depend on point of view, but rather is based on cardinal directions
how did general intelligence evolve in humans?
as a means of solving problems that are evolutionarily novel (deal with a wide variety of environmental conditions)
how does IQ correlate with how raised?
when unrelated siblings are children in same environment, IQs correlate, but correlation completely lost by the time they are adults
how does genetic relatedness correlate with IQ
the stronger the genetic relatedness the the smaller the decline in IQ correlation with age
how does openness to experience relate to IQ
more openness to experience means more likely to have higher IQ
how does intellectual flexibility correlate with job an leisure activities with age
with jobs involving lots of info and complex decisions, intellectual flexibility increases. Routine jobs cause intellectual flexibility to decrease. Effects of leisure and career activities on intellecutal flexibility increase with age
what determines black-white IQ difference
the social designation of black or white, not hte biological ancestry
groups who emigrated in hopes of bettering themselves and see themselves as well-off compared to those they left behind
groups that became minorities by being conquered, colonized, or enslaved. treated as a separate and inferior class
the minimal time that subjects need to look at or listen to a pair of stimuli to detect the difference between them
how is mental speed expected to contribute to general intelligence
by contributing to the capacity of working memory
digit span test determines
the number of single-digit numbers or unrelated words tha a person can hold in mind and report back accurately after eharing the list just once
three-back test determines
whether the current stimulus of three words or letters presented in a steady stream does or does not match the stimulus that had been shown three items earlier
which test of working memory most closely correlates with standard measures of fluid intelligence
are psychological differenes primarily the result of differences in their genes (nature) or in their environments (nurture)?
Answer to nature nurture debate
it depends; if environment same then any differences are most likely caused by genes, but if environments very different IQ differences more likely from environment
the degree to which variation in a particular trait, within a particular population of individuals, stems from genetic differences as opposed to environmental differences
(h^2), the statistic that quantifies heritability; the proportion of variance in a trait, in a given population, that derives from genetic variation
the degree to which the individuals being studied differ from one another in the characteristic that was being measured
how does correlation in IQ differ for identical and fraternal twins
identical twins have higher correlation coefficient
what happens to IQ correlation over time for identical and fraternal twins
identical twins stays same over time, fraternal twins correlation decreases during adulthood
how does heritability of fluid intelligence differ from heritability of crystallized intelligence?
they are about equal
why might fluid intelligence be increasing over time
cultural changes; video games, figure-it-out tv shows with many plots and shifts of mental subsets, etc
the variable capacity that underlies individual differences in problem solving, reasoning, and acquiring new knowledge
which test is commonly used to test children's IQ
Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV)
which test is commonly used to test adult IQ
wechsler adult intelligence scale, third edition (WAIS-III)
assess vocabulary, ability to explain how similar concepts are similar, general knowledge, and general understanding of social and physical world, verbal short-term working memory span, arithmetic ability
depend much less on verbal skills and already-acquired knowledge; assess ability to match visual designs, arrange pictures in a way that tells a story, put puzzle pieces together, arrange pictures to tell a story
profound mental retardation
below 25, can perform only most rudimentary behaviors, need continual nursing care
individuals who score very low on IQ tests but demonstrate exceptional skills or brilliance in specific areas
IQ vs creativity
minimum IQ needed for creativity, but with above avg IQ people no correlation between IQ and creativity
sternberg's triarchic theory
there are 3 main types of intelligence: analytical, creative/experintial, practical
creative/experiential part of triarchic theory
if presented with new problem, you can invent/discover or create new solution
practical part of triarchic theory
knowing how to operate in environment (adapt to it, change it to suit you, leave it)
gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
there are 9 different types of intelligences (linguistic, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, spitirual)
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