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121 terms

Exam 3 Chapter 10: Reasoning and Intelligence

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reasoning
using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable
problem solving
finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal
decision making
attempting to select best alternative among several options
What are the types of reasoning
inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning
inductive reasoning
a type of thinking in which one uses specific observations or facts to infer some new principle; hypothesis construction
deductive reasoning
a tool of formal logic in which one derives the consequences that MUST follow a set of premises; logical proof
example of inductive reasoining
analogy
what is an analogy
similarity in behavior, function, or relationship between entities or situations that are otehrwise diferent
when are analogies used heavily
in scientific reasoning and political persuasion
inductive reasoning puzzle
are there more letters in english starting with "r" or with "r" as the third letter
Deductive reasoning puzzle example
logic puzzle with lots of premises
example of deductive reasoning
syllogism
what is a syllogism
all A are B, C is B, therefore...
heuristics
"rules of thumb" that guide problem solving by reducing the amount of thinking required
biases in inductive reasoning
availability bias, representativeness bias, confirmation bias
availability bias
judging the likelihood of an event based on how readily available other instances are in memory
examples of availability bias
letter r example, assessing saftey of air travel
representativeness bias
estimating probability of someting based on how well it matches a stereotyp
example of representativeness bias
70% lawyers in cafeteria, meet nerdy guy and assume engineer
confirmation bias
preferring or seeking information that confirms pre-existing positions or beliefs while ignoring contradictory evidence
insight problems
problems that are specifically designed to be unsolvable unless one looks at them in a different way
examples of insight problems
multilated checker board problem, candle, tacks, box, bulletein board problem
mental set
a well-established habit of perception or thought
how do you solve insight problems
by overcoming a mental set
functional fixedness
thinking about objects as only for their intended use; must be overcome to solve insight problems
creativity
ability to produce something that is both new and valuable
what type of thinking is associated with creativirty?
divergent
what are the three elements of creativity?
originality, fluency, flexibility
originality
seeing unique or different solutions to a problem
fluency
generating a large number of possible solutions
flexibility
shifting with ease from one type of problem-solving attempt to another
factors that influence creativity
priming and mood
priming
activation of mental concepts to a level that does not reach mental conciousness but still makes concept more available for forming connections
who proposed "broaden and build" theory
Fredrickson
"broaden and build" theory of positive emotions states that
negative emotions narrow one's focus of perception and think only of well-learned ways of responding, while positive emotions broaden one's scope of perception and thought and increase creativity (playfulness)
intelligence
the variable capacity that underlies individual differences in reasoning, solving problems, and acquiring new knowledge
spearman's theory of intelligence
intelligence consists of two factors: "g", general mental ability and "s", abilities specific to individual tests
what does "g" account for?
the fact that people perform comparably across many types of tasks
what did cattell propose?
that there are two types of "g"; fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
fluid intelligence
the ability to solve novel problems, to see relationships among stimuli, and to reason (cannot be taught)
how is fluid intelligence influenced by culture?
it isn't because it can't be taught
crystallized intelligence
the knowledge acquired through schooling and other life experiences
how is crystallized intelligence influenced by culture?
it is learned, so different facts are taught in different cultures
convergent thinking
coming up with one answer towards a specific goal
divergent thinking
coming up with lots of far fetched alternitives without focusing so much on practicality
how does each type of intelligence change over time
fluid intelligence drops much more quickly as you get older, crystallized intelligence is maintained
predictable world bias
we are so predisposed to find order in our world that we are inclined to see or anticipate order even where it doesn't exist
in what situations is predictable world bias most obvious
in games of pure chance
language
a well developed, flexible, abstract, symbol-based mode of communication
verbal thought
thought which usessymbols that were acquired originally in the form of words (but can no longer be recognized as words)
linguistic relativity
the effects that language has on the ways that we percieve, remember, and think about the world
who termed linguisic relativity
whorf
egocentric frame of reference
a frame of reference that puts ourselves at the center
absolute frame of reference
a frame of reference that does not depend on point of view, but rather is based on cardinal directions
how did general intelligence evolve in humans?
as a means of solving problems that are evolutionarily novel (deal with a wide variety of environmental conditions)
how does IQ correlate with how raised?
when unrelated siblings are children in same environment, IQs correlate, but correlation completely lost by the time they are adults
how does genetic relatedness correlate with IQ
the stronger the genetic relatedness the the smaller the decline in IQ correlation with age
how is intelligence maintained and strengthened
with active, intellectual engagement with the world
what is openness to experience
curiosity, independence of mind, broad interests
how does openness to experience relate to IQ
more openness to experience means more likely to have higher IQ
how does intellectual flexibility correlate with job an leisure activities with age
with jobs involving lots of info and complex decisions, intellectual flexibility increases. Routine jobs cause intellectual flexibility to decrease. Effects of leisure and career activities on intellecutal flexibility increase with age
what determines black-white IQ difference
the social designation of black or white, not hte biological ancestry
voluntary minority
groups who emigrated in hopes of bettering themselves and see themselves as well-off compared to those they left behind
involuntary minorities
groups that became minorities by being conquered, colonized, or enslaved. treated as a separate and inferior class
examples of involuntary minorities
african amerifcans and native americans
who did studies on minority status relationship to IQ
ogbu
inspection time
the minimal time that subjects need to look at or listen to a pair of stimuli to detect the difference between them
how is mental speed expected to contribute to general intelligence
by contributing to the capacity of working memory
what are the two ways to measure working memory
digit span and three back test
digit span test determines
the number of single-digit numbers or unrelated words tha a person can hold in mind and report back accurately after eharing the list just once
three-back test determines
whether the current stimulus of three words or letters presented in a steady stream does or does not match the stimulus that had been shown three items earlier
which test of working memory most closely correlates with standard measures of fluid intelligence
three-back test
validity
whether a test measures what it was intended to measure
nature-nurture debate
are psychological differenes primarily the result of differences in their genes (nature) or in their environments (nurture)?
Answer to nature nurture debate
it depends; if environment same then any differences are most likely caused by genes, but if environments very different IQ differences more likely from environment
heritability
the degree to which variation in a particular trait, within a particular population of individuals, stems from genetic differences as opposed to environmental differences
heritability coefficient
(h^2), the statistic that quantifies heritability; the proportion of variance in a trait, in a given population, that derives from genetic variation
total variance
the degree to which the individuals being studied differ from one another in the characteristic that was being measured
Vg
variance resulting from genetic differences
h^2 =
Vg/Vt = Vg/(Vg + Ve)
how does correlation in IQ differ for identical and fraternal twins
identical twins have higher correlation coefficient
what happens to IQ correlation over time for identical and fraternal twins
identical twins stays same over time, fraternal twins correlation decreases during adulthood
how does heritability of fluid intelligence differ from heritability of crystallized intelligence?
they are about equal
what is happening to IQ over generations
increaases overall across all cultures
what type of IQ increases most over generations
fluid intelligence
why might fluid intelligence be increasing over time
cultural changes; video games, figure-it-out tv shows with many plots and shifts of mental subsets, etc
intelligence
the variable capacity that underlies individual differences in problem solving, reasoning, and acquiring new knowledge
full-scale score on IQ test determined by
sum of scores on verbal and performance subtests
which test is commonly used to test children's IQ
Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV)
which test is commonly used to test adult IQ
wechsler adult intelligence scale, third edition (WAIS-III)
What are modern intelligence tests derived from
Binet-Simon intelligence scale
IQ stands for
intelligence quotient
what subtests are there of the WAIS
verbal subtests and performance subtests
verbal subtests
assess vocabulary, ability to explain how similar concepts are similar, general knowledge, and general understanding of social and physical world, verbal short-term working memory span, arithmetic ability
performance subtests
depend much less on verbal skills and already-acquired knowledge; assess ability to match visual designs, arrange pictures in a way that tells a story, put puzzle pieces together, arrange pictures to tell a story
what was the first intelligence test commonly used in north america
stanford-binet scale
what is the score of the average IQ for a group
100
what do IQ scores predict
school performance, work performance, longevity
who came up with factor analysis
spearman
factor analysis
mathematical procedure for analyzing patterns of correlations
what are the possible basises for g
mental speed, working-memory capacity, mental self-government
mild mental retardation characterized by
50-70 IQ, usually able to be self-supportive in adulthood
moderate mental retardation
35-55, can learn up to ~2nd grade level
severe mental retardation
20-40, may be able to do daily routines with continual supervision
profound mental retardation
below 25, can perform only most rudimentary behaviors, need continual nursing care
gifted IQ
>130
savant-syndrome
individuals who score very low on IQ tests but demonstrate exceptional skills or brilliance in specific areas
IQ vs creativity
minimum IQ needed for creativity, but with above avg IQ people no correlation between IQ and creativity
flynn effect
increasing IQ over time
why does flynn effect happen
enriched environment, different experiences
stereotype threat
burden of doubt felt about performance due to stereotype about your group
what does negative stereotype cause
anxiety and disidentification
sternberg's triarchic theory
there are 3 main types of intelligence: analytical, creative/experintial, practical
analytical part of triarchic theory
info processing ability
creative/experiential part of triarchic theory
if presented with new problem, you can invent/discover or create new solution
practical part of triarchic theory
knowing how to operate in environment (adapt to it, change it to suit you, leave it)
what aspects must a good intelligence test have
be standardized, reliabile, and valid
gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
there are 9 different types of intelligences (linguistic, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, spitirual)
intrapersonal
how well you understand yourself
interpersonal
how well you understand others
how do you measure reliability
consistancy and stability of test scores over time (IQ shouldn't change over time)