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using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable

problem solving

finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal

decision making

attempting to select best alternative among several options

What are the types of reasoning

inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning

inductive reasoning

a type of thinking in which one uses specific observations or facts to infer some new principle; hypothesis construction

deductive reasoning

a tool of formal logic in which one derives the consequences that MUST follow a set of premises; logical proof

example of inductive reasoining


what is an analogy

similarity in behavior, function, or relationship between entities or situations that are otehrwise diferent

when are analogies used heavily

in scientific reasoning and political persuasion

inductive reasoning puzzle

are there more letters in english starting with "r" or with "r" as the third letter

Deductive reasoning puzzle example

logic puzzle with lots of premises

example of deductive reasoning


what is a syllogism

all A are B, C is B, therefore...


"rules of thumb" that guide problem solving by reducing the amount of thinking required

biases in inductive reasoning

availability bias, representativeness bias, confirmation bias

availability bias

judging the likelihood of an event based on how readily available other instances are in memory

examples of availability bias

letter r example, assessing saftey of air travel

representativeness bias

estimating probability of someting based on how well it matches a stereotyp

example of representativeness bias

70% lawyers in cafeteria, meet nerdy guy and assume engineer

confirmation bias

preferring or seeking information that confirms pre-existing positions or beliefs while ignoring contradictory evidence

insight problems

problems that are specifically designed to be unsolvable unless one looks at them in a different way

examples of insight problems

multilated checker board problem, candle, tacks, box, bulletein board problem

mental set

a well-established habit of perception or thought

how do you solve insight problems

by overcoming a mental set

functional fixedness

thinking about objects as only for their intended use; must be overcome to solve insight problems


ability to produce something that is both new and valuable

what type of thinking is associated with creativirty?


what are the three elements of creativity?

originality, fluency, flexibility


seeing unique or different solutions to a problem


generating a large number of possible solutions


shifting with ease from one type of problem-solving attempt to another

factors that influence creativity

priming and mood


activation of mental concepts to a level that does not reach mental conciousness but still makes concept more available for forming connections

who proposed "broaden and build" theory


"broaden and build" theory of positive emotions states that

negative emotions narrow one's focus of perception and think only of well-learned ways of responding, while positive emotions broaden one's scope of perception and thought and increase creativity (playfulness)


the variable capacity that underlies individual differences in reasoning, solving problems, and acquiring new knowledge

spearman's theory of intelligence

intelligence consists of two factors: "g", general mental ability and "s", abilities specific to individual tests

what does "g" account for?

the fact that people perform comparably across many types of tasks

what did cattell propose?

that there are two types of "g"; fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence

fluid intelligence

the ability to solve novel problems, to see relationships among stimuli, and to reason (cannot be taught)

how is fluid intelligence influenced by culture?

it isn't because it can't be taught

crystallized intelligence

the knowledge acquired through schooling and other life experiences

how is crystallized intelligence influenced by culture?

it is learned, so different facts are taught in different cultures

convergent thinking

coming up with one answer towards a specific goal

divergent thinking

coming up with lots of far fetched alternitives without focusing so much on practicality

how does each type of intelligence change over time

fluid intelligence drops much more quickly as you get older, crystallized intelligence is maintained

predictable world bias

we are so predisposed to find order in our world that we are inclined to see or anticipate order even where it doesn't exist

in what situations is predictable world bias most obvious

in games of pure chance


a well developed, flexible, abstract, symbol-based mode of communication

verbal thought

thought which usessymbols that were acquired originally in the form of words (but can no longer be recognized as words)

linguistic relativity

the effects that language has on the ways that we percieve, remember, and think about the world

who termed linguisic relativity


egocentric frame of reference

a frame of reference that puts ourselves at the center

absolute frame of reference

a frame of reference that does not depend on point of view, but rather is based on cardinal directions

how did general intelligence evolve in humans?

as a means of solving problems that are evolutionarily novel (deal with a wide variety of environmental conditions)

how does IQ correlate with how raised?

when unrelated siblings are children in same environment, IQs correlate, but correlation completely lost by the time they are adults

how does genetic relatedness correlate with IQ

the stronger the genetic relatedness the the smaller the decline in IQ correlation with age

how is intelligence maintained and strengthened

with active, intellectual engagement with the world

what is openness to experience

curiosity, independence of mind, broad interests

how does openness to experience relate to IQ

more openness to experience means more likely to have higher IQ

how does intellectual flexibility correlate with job an leisure activities with age

with jobs involving lots of info and complex decisions, intellectual flexibility increases. Routine jobs cause intellectual flexibility to decrease. Effects of leisure and career activities on intellecutal flexibility increase with age

what determines black-white IQ difference

the social designation of black or white, not hte biological ancestry

voluntary minority

groups who emigrated in hopes of bettering themselves and see themselves as well-off compared to those they left behind

involuntary minorities

groups that became minorities by being conquered, colonized, or enslaved. treated as a separate and inferior class

examples of involuntary minorities

african amerifcans and native americans

who did studies on minority status relationship to IQ


inspection time

the minimal time that subjects need to look at or listen to a pair of stimuli to detect the difference between them

how is mental speed expected to contribute to general intelligence

by contributing to the capacity of working memory

what are the two ways to measure working memory

digit span and three back test

digit span test determines

the number of single-digit numbers or unrelated words tha a person can hold in mind and report back accurately after eharing the list just once

three-back test determines

whether the current stimulus of three words or letters presented in a steady stream does or does not match the stimulus that had been shown three items earlier

which test of working memory most closely correlates with standard measures of fluid intelligence

three-back test


whether a test measures what it was intended to measure

nature-nurture debate

are psychological differenes primarily the result of differences in their genes (nature) or in their environments (nurture)?

Answer to nature nurture debate

it depends; if environment same then any differences are most likely caused by genes, but if environments very different IQ differences more likely from environment


the degree to which variation in a particular trait, within a particular population of individuals, stems from genetic differences as opposed to environmental differences

heritability coefficient

(h^2), the statistic that quantifies heritability; the proportion of variance in a trait, in a given population, that derives from genetic variation

total variance

the degree to which the individuals being studied differ from one another in the characteristic that was being measured


variance resulting from genetic differences

h^2 =

Vg/Vt = Vg/(Vg + Ve)

how does correlation in IQ differ for identical and fraternal twins

identical twins have higher correlation coefficient

what happens to IQ correlation over time for identical and fraternal twins

identical twins stays same over time, fraternal twins correlation decreases during adulthood

how does heritability of fluid intelligence differ from heritability of crystallized intelligence?

they are about equal

what is happening to IQ over generations

increaases overall across all cultures

what type of IQ increases most over generations

fluid intelligence

why might fluid intelligence be increasing over time

cultural changes; video games, figure-it-out tv shows with many plots and shifts of mental subsets, etc


the variable capacity that underlies individual differences in problem solving, reasoning, and acquiring new knowledge

full-scale score on IQ test determined by

sum of scores on verbal and performance subtests

which test is commonly used to test children's IQ

Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV)

which test is commonly used to test adult IQ

wechsler adult intelligence scale, third edition (WAIS-III)

What are modern intelligence tests derived from

Binet-Simon intelligence scale

IQ stands for

intelligence quotient

what subtests are there of the WAIS

verbal subtests and performance subtests

verbal subtests

assess vocabulary, ability to explain how similar concepts are similar, general knowledge, and general understanding of social and physical world, verbal short-term working memory span, arithmetic ability

performance subtests

depend much less on verbal skills and already-acquired knowledge; assess ability to match visual designs, arrange pictures in a way that tells a story, put puzzle pieces together, arrange pictures to tell a story

what was the first intelligence test commonly used in north america

stanford-binet scale

what is the score of the average IQ for a group


what do IQ scores predict

school performance, work performance, longevity

who came up with factor analysis


factor analysis

mathematical procedure for analyzing patterns of correlations

what are the possible basises for g

mental speed, working-memory capacity, mental self-government

mild mental retardation characterized by

50-70 IQ, usually able to be self-supportive in adulthood

moderate mental retardation

35-55, can learn up to ~2nd grade level

severe mental retardation

20-40, may be able to do daily routines with continual supervision

profound mental retardation

below 25, can perform only most rudimentary behaviors, need continual nursing care

gifted IQ



individuals who score very low on IQ tests but demonstrate exceptional skills or brilliance in specific areas

IQ vs creativity

minimum IQ needed for creativity, but with above avg IQ people no correlation between IQ and creativity

flynn effect

increasing IQ over time

why does flynn effect happen

enriched environment, different experiences

stereotype threat

burden of doubt felt about performance due to stereotype about your group

what does negative stereotype cause

anxiety and disidentification

sternberg's triarchic theory

there are 3 main types of intelligence: analytical, creative/experintial, practical

analytical part of triarchic theory

info processing ability

creative/experiential part of triarchic theory

if presented with new problem, you can invent/discover or create new solution

practical part of triarchic theory

knowing how to operate in environment (adapt to it, change it to suit you, leave it)

what aspects must a good intelligence test have

be standardized, reliabile, and valid

gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

there are 9 different types of intelligences (linguistic, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal, logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, spitirual)


how well you understand yourself


how well you understand others

how do you measure reliability

consistancy and stability of test scores over time (IQ shouldn't change over time)

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