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12 terms

Operant Conditioning

Section 2
STUDY
PLAY
operant conditioning
learning from the consequences of our actions
reinforcements
is the process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
primary reinforcers
reinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of an organism
secondary reinforcers
acquire their value through being paired with established reinforcers
positive reinforcers
increase the frequency of a behavior when applied (EX. If you finish your homework early, you get to go to the movies as a reward)
negative reinforcers
increase the frequency of a behavior when removed (EX. to stop the buzzing sound in your car, you have to roll up the window)
schedule of reinforcement
when and how often the reinforcement occurs
continuous reinforcement
or the reinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs
partial reinforcement
behavior is not reinforced every time
shaping
is a way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the total activity
chaining
each step of a sequence must be learned and must lead to the next until the final action is achieved
punishment
decreases the frequency of a behavior (EX. your parents take your cell phone away for one day each week to lower your phone bill)