A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negatively afffect something that first party cares about.
Interactionist view of conflict
The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively. Harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static, apathetic, and unresponsive to needs for change and innovation.
Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Constructive form of conflict.
Approximately 18 percent of their time trying to resolve conflict among staff members.
Low to moderate levels of
Task conflict stimulate discussion of ideas. Task conflicts relate positively to creativity and innovation.
Are not productive, they take time away from job tasks or interacting with customes and hurt feelings and anger often linger after conflicts appear to be over.
Long-term studies show that all conflicts reduce
Trust, respect, and cohesion in groups which reduces long-term viability.
A process that has five stages: Potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior and outcomes.
The first step in the conflict process is
The appearance of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. They need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these coniditions is necessary if conflict is to surface.
Stages of Conflict
Stage I - Potential oppositional or incompatiblity. Stage II - Cognition and personalization, Stage III Intentions, Stage IV Behavior, Stage V Outcomes
An increase in communication is functional
To a point, after which it is possible to overcommunicate with a resultant increase in the potential for conflict.
Variables such as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clairty, member goals compatibiltiy leadership styles, reward systems and a the degree of dependence between groups.
Meeting someone for whom you felt an immediate dislike? You disagreed with most of the opinions they expressed. The sound of their voice, the smirk when he smiled, his personality annoyed you.
Stage III Intentions
Conflict-handling intentions. Compting, collaborating, compromising, avoiding and accomodating.
Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.
Emotional involvement in a conflict that creates anxiety tenseness, frustration, or hostility.
Decisions to act in a given way. Intentions intervene between people's perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior.
Stage II is important because
It's where conflict issues tend to be defined. This is the point when the parties decide what the conflict is about.
Many conflicts are escalated
Because one party attributes the wrong intentions to the other. There is also typically a great deal of slippage between intentions and behavior does not always accurately reflect a persons intentions.
Cooperativeness - the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns. Assertivgeness - the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns.
Conflicting handling intentions
Competing - assertive and uncooperative - Collaborating - assertive and cooperative avoiding - unassertive and uncooperative, Accommodating - unassertive and cooperative and Compromising - midrange on both assertive and cooperativeness
When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interest regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict.
A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. The parties intend to solve a problem by clarifying differences rather tahn by accommodating various points of view. "win win"
The willingness of one party to a conflict to place the opponent's interest above his or her own. A party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent's interest above his or her own, sacrificing to maintain the relationship.
A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something. No clear winner or loser.
The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
Research indicates people have preferences among the five conflict handling
Intentions and tend to rely on them quite consistently. We can predict a person's intentions rather well from a combination of intellectual and personality characteristics.
Conflict becomes most visible
At Stage IV. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties. usually as overt attempt to implement their own intentions.
As a result of miscalculations or unskilled enactments
Overt behaviors sometimes deviate from these original intentions
You should assume conflicts that reach
The upper ranges of the continuum are almost always dysfunctional.
Face-to-face meeting of the conflicting parties for the purpose of identifying the problem and resolving it through open discussion.
Creating a shared goal that cannot be attained without the cooperation of each of the conflicting parties.
Expansions of resources
When a conflict is caused by the scarcity of a resource (money, promotion, opportunities, office space)
Playing down differences while emphaizing common interest betweent he conflicting parties.
Management uses its formal authority to resolve the conflict and then communicates its desires to the parties involved.
Altering the human variable
Using behavioral change techniques such as human relations training to alter attitudes and behaviors that cause conflict.
Altering the structural variables
Changing the formal organization structure and the interaction patterns of conflicting parties through job redesign, transfers, creation of coordinating positions and the like.
Conflict Stimulation Techniques
Communication (using ambiguous or threatening messages to increase conflict levels.) Bringing in outsiders (Adding employees to a group whose backgrounds, values, attitudes or managerial styles differ from thjose of the present members.) Restructure the organization (Realigning work groups, altering rules and regulations, increasing interdependence and making similar structural changes to disrupt the status quo) Appointing a devil's advocate (Designating a critic to purposely argue against the majority positions held by the group.)
Conflict is constructive
When it improves the qualtiy of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and curiosity among group members, provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change.
Conflict is an antidote
For groupthink. It does not allow the group to passively rubber-stamp decisions that may be based on weak assumptions.
Groups that are extremely polarized
Do not manage their underlying disagreements effectively and tend to accept suboptimal solutions or they tend to avoid making decisions altogether rather than working out the conflict.
All forms of conflict even the functional varieties
Appear to reduce group member satisfaction and reduce trust.
If differences of opinion open up along demographic fault-lines
Harmful conflicts result and information sharing decreases.
A high proportion of people who get to the top
Are conflict avoiders. They don't like hearing negatives; they don't like saying or thinking negative things. They frequently make it up the ladder in part because they don't irritate people on the way up.
One common ingredient in organizations
That successfully manage functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. Often, we perceive that dissenters are slowing progress toward a goal which may be true, but in so doing they are asking the important questions about whether the goal is the right one to pursue.
Negotiation is a process that occurs
When two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources. A process in wich two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.
Goal - Get as much of the pie as possible. Motivation - Win-lose. Focus on Position (I can't go byond this pont on this issue. Opposed to information sharing. Short term relationship.
Goal - Expand the pie so that both parties are satisfied - Motivation - win-win, Focus - Interest (Can you explain why this issue is so important to you? Information sharing - High (Sharing information will allow each party to find ways to satisfy interest of each party. Long term relationship.
It's most identifying feature is that it operates under the zero-sum condition. Any gain I make is at your expense and vice versa.
When you are engaged in distributive bargaining research consistently shows one of the best things you can do
Is make the first offer, and make it an aggressive one. Making the first offer shows power. Speak first at meetings and thereby gain the advantage. People tend to fixate on initial inforamtion. Once that anchoring point is set they fail to adequately adjust it based on subsequent information.
Negotiators who reveal deadlines speed
Concessions from their negotiating couterparts making them reconsider their position.
Bargaining in Teams
Will help to reach more integrative agreements than those who bargain individually. More ideas are generated when more people are at the bargaining table.
Compromise may be your worst enemy
In negotiating a win-win agreement. It reduces the pressure to bargain integratively. Sisters and the orange example.
In distributive negotiations it appears the
Negotiatiors in a position of power or equal status who show anger negotiate better outcomes because their anger induces concessions from their opponents. This appears to hold true even when the negotiators are instructed to show anger despite not being truly angry. Those with less power showing angryu leades to worse outcomes.
Positive moods and emotions appear
To lead to more integrative agreements with higher levels of joint gain.
East Asian negotiators respond more
Negaitvely to angry negotiators because their culture emphaizes respect and deference.
A neutral third party who facilititates a negotiated solution by using reasoning persuasion and suggestions for alternatives. Best when used with moderate levels of conflict. Settlement rate 60%.
A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. Big plus over mediation is that it always results in a settlement. The conflict may resurfce at a later time if one party is very dissatisfied.
A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negoitator and the opponent. Can engage in fact finding, interpret messages and persuade disputants to develop agreements.
An impartial third party skilled in conflict management who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication analysis. Does not try to settle the issues but rather works to improve relationships between the conflicting parties so they can reach a settlement themselves.
An optimal level of conflict
Prevents stagnation, stimulates creativity, allows tensions to be released and initiates the seeds of change, without being disruptive or preventing coordination of acitivities.l
To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised when your objective is to learn when you want to merge insights from people and different perspectives or gain commitiment by incorporating concerns into a consensus.
When an issue is trivail or symptomatic of other issues when more important issues are pressing, when you perceive no change of satisfying your concerns when potential disruption outweighs the benefits of reasolution to let people cool down and regain perspective when gathering informaiton supersedes immediate decision and when others can resolve the conflict more effectively.
When you find you're wrong and to allow a better position to be heard, to learn, to show your resasonableness when issues are more important to others than to yourself and to satisfy others and maintaining cooperation, to build social credits for later issues to minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing, when harmony and stability are especially important and to allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes.
When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches when opponenents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals, to achieve temporary settloements to complex issues, to arrive at expediant solutions under time pressure and as a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.
Distributive bargaining can
Resolve disputes but it often negatively affects the satisfaction of one or more negotiators because it is focused on the short term and because it is confrontational.
Tends to provide outcomes that satisfy all parties and that build lasting relationships. When engaged in negotiation make sure you set aggressive goals and try to find creative ways to achieve the goals of both parties especially when you value the long-term relationship with the other party.
The degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Henry Ford. Each worker was assigned a specific repetitive task such as putting on the right-front wheel. Question to answer: To what degree are activities subdivided into separate jobs? Increases efficiency and productivity by increasing the creation of special inventions and machinery. Can be carried too far.
Managers need to address
Six Key elements when they design their organization's structure. 1) Work specialization 2) departmentalization, 3) chain of command, 4) span of control 5) centralization and decentralization and 6) formalization.
From specialization began to surface as boredom, fatigue, stress, low producitivty, poor quality, increased absenteeism and high turnover which more than offset the economic advantages.
The basis by which jobs in an organization are grouped together. One of the most popular ways to group activities is by functions performed. Engineering, accounting, manufacturing, personnel and supply specialists.
Chain of Command
The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom. It answers the question of, "Who do I go to if I have a question? and To whom am I responsible to?
The rights inherent in a managerial postition to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed.
Unity of Command
The idea that a subordinate should have only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible to. Fewer of them today with the amount of technology available.
Departmentalization can be
By function, product, geography, customer or service the organization produces. Procter and Gamble places each major product such as
Tide, Pampers, Charmin and Pringles under an executive who has complete global responsibiltiy for it. It increases accountability for performance because it is under the direction of one manager.
Span of Control
The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. All things being equal the wider or larger the span the more efficient the organization. If the average manager makes $50,000 a year the wider span will save 440 million a eyar in management salaries.
The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a singel point in an organization. Top managers make all the decisions and lower-level managers merely carry out their directives. Formal authority.
The degree to which jobs within an organization are standardized. There are explicit job descriptions, lots of organizational rules and clearly defined procedues covering work processes in organizaitons in whic there is high formalization.
Narrow Spans of Control
A mangaer can maintain close control but there are three major drawbacks. 1) They're expensive because they add levels of management. 2) They make vertical communciation in the organization more complex. The added levels of hierarchy slow down decision making and tend to isolate upper management. 3) Encourage overly tight supervision and discourage employee autonomy. The trent in recent years has been toward wider spans of control.
To ensure performance does not suffer with wider spans of control
Organizations have been investing heavily in employee training. Managers recognize they can handle a wider span when employees know their jobs inside and out and can turn to co-workers when they have a question.
Decisions are pushed down to the managers closest to the action. Can act more quickly to solve problems, more people provide input into decisions and employees are less likely to feel alienated from those who make decisions that affect their work lives. Trend is going to more decentralization because they can bde more flexible and responsive. They typically have more detailed knowledge about the problems.
Where formalization is low
Job behaviors are relatively unprogrammed and employees have a great deal of freedom to exercise discretion in their work.
An organization structure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person and little formalization. It is a flat organization. One person at the top and then everyone else on the same line below. Small businesses where the manager and the owner are the same.
Simple Structure is Fast
Flexible and inexpensive to operate and accountability is clear. It becomes increasingly inadequate as an organization grows because its low formalization and high centralization tend to create information overload at the top. (approx. 50-100 people too many for this structure)
Standardization is the key concept that underlies
All bureaucracies. Needed for coordination and control. Hospitals benefit from standardized work processes and procedures common amony bureaucracies.
A bureaucracy is characterized by highly
Routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks grouped into function departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control and decision making that folows the chain of command.
Primary strength of a bureaucracy
Its ability to perform standardized activities in a highly efficient manner. Results in economies of scale, minimum duplication of personnel and equipment and employees who have the opportunity to talk the same langugage among their peers. Can get by with less talented and less costly middle and lower level managers. Rules and regs substitute for managerial discretion.
Bureaucracy is efficient only as long as
Employees confront familiar problems with programmed decision rules.
An organization structure that creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalization. Breaks the unity of command concept. Employees in the matrix have two bosses; their functional department managers and their product managers.
Similar to academic departments - accounting, decision and information systems, marketing are functional units. Overlaid on them are specific programs (products). A professor of accounting teaching an undergraduate course may report to the director of undergraduate programs as well as to the chairperson of the accounting department.
The strength of the matrix structure
Is its ability to faciliatate coordinattion when the organization has a number of complex and interdependent activities. Direct and frequent contacts between different specialties in the matrix con let information permeate the organization and more quickly reach the people who need it.
The matrix reduces
Bureaupathologies the dual lines of authority reduce peoples tendency to become so busy protecting their little worlds that the organization's goals become secondary.
The Matrix disadvantages
Are it creates confusion and its propensity to foster power struggles and the stress it places on individuals. Reporting to more than one boss introduces role conflict and unclear espectations introduce role ambiguity.
Bureaucracy reduces the potential for
Power grabs by defining the rules of the game. Bureaucracy's are predictable and comfortable to some people.
A small, core organization that outsources major business functions. Sometimes called network or modular organization. It is highly centralized with little or no departmentalization. Example - MGM vertically integrated corporations. Today most movies are made by a collection of individuals and small companies who come together and make films project by project. This structure form allows each project to be staffed with the talent best suited to its demands. Boeing outsourced 70% of the components for the new 787 Dreamliner passenger jet.
Virtual Organizations allow for maximum
Flexibility This allows individuals with an innovative idea and little money such as Ancle Hsu and David Ji to successfully compete against the likes of Sony, Hitachi and Sharp Electronics. Team members who are geographically dispersed and communicate only intermittently find it difficult to share information and kinowledge which can limit innovation and slow response time. Ironically some birtual organizations as less adaptable and innovative than those with well established communciation and collaboration networks.
An organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control and replace departments with empowered teams. By removing vertical boundaries, management flattens the hierarchy and minimizes status and rank.
Functional departments create horizontal boundaries that
Stifle interaction among functions, products lines and units. The way to reduce them is to replace functional departments with cross-functional teams and organize activities around processes.
Management can cut through horizontal barriers
Is to use lateral transfers rotating people into and out of different functional areas. The approach turns specialistrs into generalists.
Companies that downsize often see
Positive effects on stock prices after the announcement. Among companies that only cut employees but do not restructure, profits and stock prices usually delcine. Employees who remain often feel worried about future layoffs and may be less committe to the organizations.
Companies that downsize to focus on core competencies are more effective
When they invest in high involvement work practices afterward - Investment.
When employers make efforts to discuss
Downsizing with employees early, employees are less worried about the outcomes and feel the company is taking their perspective into account. - communication.
Employees worry less if they can
Participate in the process in some way. Voluntary early retirement programs or severance packages can help. - participation.
Providing severance, extended health care benefits, and job search assistance
Demonstrates a company does really cares about its employees and honors their contributions - Assistance.
Companies that make themselves more
Lean can be more agile, efficient and productive but only if they make cuts carefully and help employees through the process.
A structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network and centralization.
Organic Model -
A structure that is flat, uses cross-heirarchical and cross functional teams, has low formalization, possesses a comprehensive information network, and relies on participative decision making. Looks alot like the boundaryless organization.
An organization's overall strategy is closely linked
To the objectives. Structure should follow strategy. If management significantly changes the organization's strategy the structure must change to accomomodate.
Most current strategy frameworks focus on
Three strategy dimensions - innovation, cost minimization and imitation and the structural design that works best with each.
Innovation strategy - Organic
A strategy that emphasizes the introduction of major new products and services. Innovative firms will use competitive pay and benefits to attract top candidatres and motivate employees to take risks. A loose structure, low specialization, low formalization and decentralization.
Some degree of mechanistic structure can actually benefit
Innovation. Well-developed communciation channels, policies for enhancing long-term commitment, and clear channels of authority all make make it easier to make rapid changes smoothly.
Cost Minimization strategy -
Mechanistic - A strategy that emphasizes tight cost controls avoidance of unnecessary innovation or marketing expenses, and price cutting.
Mechanistic and organic. Mix of loose with tight properties, tight controls over current activities and looser controls for new undertakings.
The way in which an organization transfers its inputs into outputs. Every organization has at least one technology for converting financial, human and physical resources into products or services.
Institutions or forces outside an organization that potentially affect the organization's performance such as suppliers, customers, competitors, governemtn regulatory agencies and public pressure groups.
Capacity refers to the degree to which
The environment can support growth. Rich and growing enviornments generate excess resources, which can buffer the organization in timnes of relative scarcity.
Volatility describes the degree of
Instability in an environment. A dyunamic enviornment with a high degree of unpredictable change makes it difficult for management to make accurate predictions.
Complexity is the degree of
Heterogenity and concentration among enviornmental elements. Tobacco industry is homogeneous and concentrated.Environments characterssized by heterogeneity and dispersion like the broadband industry are complex and diverse with numerous competitors.
The more abundant, stable and simple
The environment, the more the mechanistic structure will be preferred.
No relationship betweeen span of control
and employee performance. Research fails to support that large spans lead to higher employee performance because they provide more distant supervision and more opportunity for personal initiative.
Evidence indicates that a manager's job satisfaction
Increases as the number of employees supervised increases.
Strong evidence linking
centralization and job satisfaction. Organizations that are less centralized have a greater amount of autonomy. Autonomy appears positively related to job satisfaction.
The great conclusion - To maximize employee performance and job satisfaction
Managers must take individual differences such as experience, personality and the work task, into account. Culture should factor in also.
Bureaucratic structures still dominate
In many parts of Europe and Asia. One management expert argues that U.S. management often places too much emphasis on individual leadership, which may be jarring in countries where decision making is more decentralized.
Consider cultutural differences along with
Individual differences when predicting how structure will affect employee performance and satisfaction.
When fully operational, the boundaryless organization
Also breaks down barriers created by geography.
The boundaryless organization
Considers geography more of a tactical, logistical issue than a structural one. In short, the goal of the boundaryless organization is to break down cultural barriers.
Strategy, size, technology and environment
Determine the type of structure an organization will have.
5S - Concept borrowed from Japanese manufacturer Kyocera.
Sorting. Going through all tools, materials, and supplies so as to keep only what is essential. Straightening - Arranging tools supplies, equipment and parts in a manner that promotes maximum efficienty. For every thing there should be a place, and every thing should be in its place. Shining. Systematic cleanin to make the workplace and work space as clean and neat as possible. At the end of the shift or workday, every thing is left as it was when the workday started. Standardardizing - Knowing exactly what your responsibiliters are to keep the first three S's Sustaining - Maintaining and reviewing the standards, rigorous review and inspection to ensure order does not slowly slip back into disorder or chaos.
A strong organizational culture
Provides stability to an organization. It's not for everyone. It refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Innovation, Detail, orientation, agressiveness, stability.
Innovation and risk taking
The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks.
Attention to detail.
The degree to which employees are e3xpected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve them.
The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than indificuals.
The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.
A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. How employees perceive the characteristics of the organization's culture. - not with whether they like them. that is, it's a descriptive term.
In contrast to orgt\anizational culture - job satisfaction
Seeks to measure how employees feel about the organization's expectations, reward practices, and the like. It is evaluative.
A culture taht expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of organization's members. Gives the organization its distinct personality.
Minicultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation.
A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared. The stronger the culture, the greater its influence on member behavior because the high degree of sharedness and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioral control. (Nordstroms vs. Macy's) A strong culture reduces employee turnover because it demonstrates high agreement about what the organization represent. Builds cohesivness, loyalty and organizational commitment.
High formalization creates predictability, orderliness and consistency. A strong culture achieves
The same end without the need for written documentation.
Should mulitinational corporations establish a single strong organizational culture across different nations or
Adopt different cultural practices in each country. Research suggests the best management practice is to develop a strong unifying mission, while allowing teams to accomplish their work in ways that suit each nation's culture.
Empowerment appeared more important in
Individualistic than in collectivistic countries. Encouraging local teams to find their own solutions for their own cultural context resulted in greater learning and performance.
Culture has a boundary defining role
It creates distinctions between one organization and others. It conveys a sense of identity for organization members and it facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than individual self interest. It also enchances the stability of the social system.
Culture is the social glue that helps hold the
Organization together by providing appropriate standards for what employees should say and do.
Culture is a sense-making and
Control mechanism of what guides and shapes employee's attitudes and behavior.
Culture by definition is elusive,
Intangible, implicit and taken for granted. but everyone organization develops a core set of assumptions, understandings and imploicit rules that govern day-to-day behavior in the workplace. Conformity to the rules becomes the primary basis for reward and pward mobility.
Today's trend toward decentralized organizations
Makes culture more important than ever, but ironically it also makes establishing a strong culture more difficult.
Whether the applicant's or employee's attitudes and behavior
Are compatible with the culture strongly influnces who gets a job offer, a favorable performance review or a promotion.
The shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment. Psychological climate was strongly related to individuals level of job satisfaction, involvement, commitment, and motivation.
A condition that occurs when an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, and acquires immortality. Valued for itself and not for the goods and services it produces - it takes on a life of its own apart from its founders or members.
A person who encounters a positive climate for
Performance will think about doing a good job more often and will believe others support his or her success.
Behavior and habits that should be questiosed and
Analyzed become taken for granted in institutionalization. This can stifle innovation and make maintaining the organization's culture an end in itself.
Consistency of behavior, an asset in a stable
Enviornment, may then burden the organization and make it difficult to respond to changes. Strong cultures worked well for them in the past but become barriers to change when "business as usual" is no longer effective.
Strong Cultures can be
Liabilities when they support institutional bias or become insensitive to people who are different.
All things being equal, whether the acquisition actually works seems to have more to do with
How well the two organization's culture match up. Mergers have an unusually high failure rate, and it's always because of people issues.
Founders traditionally have a major impact on an
Organization's early culture. They have a vision of what the organization should be. They hire employees who think like them, they socialize these people to think more like them and they encourage the people to think more like them in rewarding those who do.
The explicit goal of the selection process is to
Identify and hire individuals with the knowledge, skills and abilities to perform successfully.
Socialization is a process
With the prearrival stage - prehire, Encounter Stage - new employee, Metamorphosis - employee adapts.
The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization.
The stage in the soicalization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee changes and adjusts to the job, work group and organization.
The most important predictor of future behavior is
Past behavior. What people know before they join the organization, and how proactive their personality is, are critical predictors of how well they adjust to a new culture.
The more a new employee is segregated from the
Ongoing work setting and differentiated in some way to make explicit his or her newcomer's role, the more socialization is formal. Informal no or little training.
Fixed or Variable Socialization refers
To the time schedule in which newcomers make the transition from outsider to insdier. Accounting firms 8-10 yrs. to become partner.
Serial socialization is charactedrized by
The use of role models who train and encourage the newcomer.
In random socialization role models are
Deliberately withheld. new employees are left on their own to figure things out.
Investiture socialization assumes that the newcomer's qualities and qualifications are the
Necessary ingredients for job success, so these qualities and qualifications are confirmed and supported.
Divestiture socialization tries to strip away
Certain characteristics of the recruit. Fraternity and sorority pledges go through divestiture socialization to shape them into a proper role.
How can management create a more ethical culture?
Be a visible role model, communicate ethical expectations, provide ethical training, visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones and provide protective mechanisms.
Positive organizational culture
A culture that emphasizes building on employee strengths, rewards more than punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth.
The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community. Starbucks paying third-world suppliers more. Helping people reach their full potential.
An increasing number of people are finding that the pursuit of more material acquisitions
Leaves them unfulfilled.
Cultural characteristics that tend to be evident in spiritual organizations.
Strong sense of purpose. Trust and respect. Humanistic work practices. toleration of employee expression.
The vast majority of U.S. adults describe themselves as
Religious. In a 2008 poll 78% described themselves as Christian and 92% describe themselves as spiritual.
One of the primary things US managers can do is to be culturally sensitive. The US is a
Dominant force in business and in culture and with that influence comes a reputation We are broadly seen throughout the world as arrogant people, totally self absorbed and loud.
- Use the prelimianary "rough cuts" to decide whether an
Applicant meets the basic qualifications for a job. Background checks, application forms.
Determine the most qualified applicants from among those who meet basic qualifications. - Written tests (intelligence or cognitive ability tests, personality tests, integrity tests and interest inventories), performance tests (best known are work samples and assessment centers), interviews. The heart of the selection process. 60% of employers use them in US
Make final check before making offer to applicant. Drug tests, background check.
Job performance of European workers nearly exactly as well as it does that of U.S workers.
Evidence indicates that core
Self-evaluations, reflecting the degree to which individuals have a positive view of themselves, also lead to worker effectiveness inside and outside the US.
It's first Impressions
That count. Physical characteristics, clothing, firmness of handshake, gesters and tone of voice.
Interview effectiveness improves when employers use
Behavioral structured interviews, probably because these assessments are less influenced by a variety of interviewer biases. They require applicants to describe how they handled specific problems and situations in previous jobs based on the assumption that past behavior offers the best predictor of future behavior.
Statistics show that nearly 40% of the U.S. labor force and more than 50% of HS graduates
Don't possess the basic work skills needed to perform in today's workplace.
Most training is directed at upgrading and improving an employee's
Technical skills, increasingly important for two reasons: new technology and new structural designs in the organization.
As organizations flatten their structures, expand their use of teams and break down traditional departmental barriers,
Employees need mastery of a wider variety of tasks and increased knowledge of how thier organization operates.
About 75% of employees working in the largest US corp.
Receive ethics training either during new employee orientation, as part of ongoing developmental programs or as periodic reinforcement of ethical principles. Jury is still out if you can actually "teach" ethics.
Individuals who have greater exposure to organizational
Ethic codes and ethics training do tend to be more satisfied and perceive their organizatons as more socially responsible, so ethics training does have some positive effects.
70% of workplace training takes place
In informal training, unstructured, unplanned and easily adapted to situations and individuals for teaching skills and keeping employees current. "Employees helping each other out."
Off the job training popular format is
Live classroom lectures. It also includes videotapes, public seminars, self-study programs, Internet courses, satellite-beamed television classes and group activities that use role-plays and case studies.
E-learning systems emphasize learner control
Over the pace and content of instruction, allow e-learners to interact through online communities and incorporate other techniques such as simulations and group discussions.
Computer based training that let learners
Actively participate in exercises and quizzes was more effective than traditional classroom instruction. However, it can be expensive and "clicking through" training without actually engaging in practice activities provides no assurance employees have actually learned anything.
Researchers now recognize types of behavior that constitute performance at work.
Task performance, Citizenship and counterporductivity
Performing the duties and responsibilties that contribute to the production of a good or service or to administrative tasks.
Actions that contribute to the psychological environment of the organization, such as helping others when not required, supporting organizational objectives, treating co-workers with respect, making constructive suggestions and saying positive things about he workplace.
Actions that actively damage the organization, including stealing, behaving aggressively toward coworkers or being late or absent.
Serves a number of puposes. One is to help management make general human resource decisions about promotions, transfers, and terminations. Identify training and development needs. Provide feedback to employees on how the organization views their performance and are often the basis for reward allocations including merit pay increases.
Latest approach to performance evaluation is
360 degree evaluations. These provide performance feedback from the employee's full circle of daily contacts from mailroom workers to customers to bosses to peers.
Methods of Performance Evaluation
Written essays, critical incidents, graphic ratings scahles, behaviorally anchored rating scales, forced comparisons, group order ranking and individual ranking.
Evaluators attention on the difference between executing a job effectively and executing it ineffectively.
Graphic rating scales
An evaluation method in which the evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale. Quantity, quality, depth of knowledge, cooperation, attendance and initiative and rates each incrementally.
Behaviorally anchored rating scales - combine major elements from the critical incident and graphic rating scale approaches. Actual behavior not general descriptions - or traits.
Method of performance evaluation where an employee'[s performance is made in explicit comparison to others. Ranking systems. Group - top one fifth or individual ranking - best to worst.
Some appraisers bias their evaluations by
Unconsciously favoring people who have qualities and traits similar to their own. (Similarity error)
To make evaluations more fair
Use multiple evaluators, evaluate selectively, train evaluators, provide employees with due process.
Evaluator should be
As close as possible, in organizational level, to the individual being evaluated to avoid possible inaccuracies.
Train Evaluators so they
Are all evaluating in the same way. Ask evaluators to give details will encourage them to base evaluation more on actions rather than a 'feeling'.
An effective review in which the employee perceives
The appraisal as fair, the manager as sincere and the climate as constructive can leave the employee feeling upbeat, informed about areas needing improvement and determined to correct them. Should be a counseling activity more than a judgment process, best accomplished by allowing it to evolve from the employee's own self-evaluation.
There is a great variation in
Recruiting and selection processes across countries but also important commonalities.
Individual oriented cultures
Emphasize formal performance evaluation systems more than informal systems. It may be changing in Korea, Singapore and Japan as more formalized evaluations are taking place recently.
Middle Eastern Countries do not widely use
Performance evaluations because managers tend to see people as subject to their environment.
It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most
Responsive to change.
Demise of Circuit City was due to
Choosing to locate its stores in areas where real estate was cheap. In 2007 it laid off 3400 of its most experience sales staff to control costs. The company saved money but it paid a heavy price to customer traffic and employee morale. In 2003 the firm eliminated its sales commission structure. Best employees left. And two things not in Circuit Cities control - Global recession - retailing struggled the most. Shut down Eddie Bauer, Sharper Image, Linen n Things or declared bankruptcy.
Successful organizations will be fast on their
Feet capable of developing new products rapidly and getting them to market quickly.
Changes in Business
Nature of workforce, Technology, Economic Shocks, Competition, Social Trends, world politics
Nature of the workforce
More cultural diviersity. Aging Population, Increased immigraton and outsourcing.
Faster, Cheaper, and more mobile ocmputers and handheld devices, emergence of growth of social networking sites, deciphering of the human genetic code.
Rise and fall of global housing market, Financial sector collapse, global recession.
Global competitiors, mergers and consolidations, increased government regulation of commerce.
Increased environmental awareness, Liberalization of attitudes toward gay, lesbian and transgender employees, more multitasking and connectivity.
Rising healthcare costs, negative social attitudes toward business and executives, opening of markets in China
Textbook addresses change as an
Intentional, goal oriented activity. It seeks to improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its enviornment. Second, it seeks to change employee behavior.
Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities. They see a future for the organization that others have not identified and they are able to motivate, invent and implement this vision.
Individual sources reside
In human characteristics such as perceptions, personalities and needs. Habit, Security, Economic factors, fear of the unknown, selective information processing.
Organizational sources reside
In the structural makeup or organizations themselves. Structural inertia, limited focus of change, group inertia, threat to expertise, threat to established power relationships.
To cope with life's complexitites, we rely on habits or programmed responses. But when confronted with change, this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways becomes a source of resistance.
People with a high need to security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety.
Changes in job tasks or established work routines can arouse economic fears if people are concerned that they won't be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards, especially when pay is closely tied to productivity.
Selective information processing
Individuals are guilty of selectively processing information in order to keep thier perceptions intact. They hear what they want to hear, and they ignore information that challenges the world they've created.
Organizations have built-in mechanisms such as their selection process and formalized regulations to produce stability. When an organization is confronted with change, this structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability.
Limited focus of change
Organizations consisting of a number of interdependent subsystems. One can't be changed without affecting the others so limited changes in substystems tend to be nullified by the larger system.
Even if individauls want to change their behavio,r group norms may act as a constraint.
Threat to expertise
Changes in organizational patterns may threaten the expertise of specialized groups.
Threat to established power relationships
Any redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long established power relationships within the organization.
Successful change in organizations should follow three steps 1) unfreezing the status quo, 2) movemenmt to a desired end state and 3) refereezing the new change to make it permanent.
Is an equilibrium state. to move from equilibrium to over come the pressures of both individual resistance and group fondofrmity unfreezing must happe in one of three ways
The driving forces which direct behavior away from the status quo can be increased.
The restraining forces which hinder movement away from equilibrium can be decreased and a third alternatinve is to combine the first two approaches.
Research shows that companies with strong cultures excel in
Incremental change but are overcome by restraining forces against radical change.
Harvard Business School built on Lewin's model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. 1) Establish sense of urgency 2) Form a coalition with enough power to lead teh change. 3) Create a new vision to direct the change and startegies for achieving the vision 4) Communicate it throughout the organization 5) Empoower others to act on the vision by rtemoving barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving 6) Pla for, create ,and reward shot term "wins" taht move the organization toward the new vision. 7) Consolidate improvements, reassesss changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs. 8) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizationl success.
A change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of change action based on what the analyzed date indicate. Diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action and evaluation. Change agent often an outside consultant.
The change agent objectively looks for problems and the type of problem
Determines the type of change action.
A collection of planned change interventions built on humanistic democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.
Organizational Development "OD" Methods
Value human and organizational growth, collaborative and participative processes and a spirit of inquiry. Respect for people, Trust and support power equalization, confrontation and participation.
OD Techniques to bring about change.
Sensitivity training, appreciative inquiry, survey feedback, process consultation, team building, intergroup development
Instead of looking for problems to fix it seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of the organization wihc members can build on to improve performance. Discovery, dreaming, design and destiny
Innovation is a specialized kind of
Change whereby a new idea is applied to initiating or improving a product, process or service. Twitter for example is a innovation in the distribution of information.
Idea Champions. Extremely high self confidence, persistence, energy and tendecy to take risks. Inspire and energize others. Good at gaining a commitment from others.
Individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusaistically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance and ensure taht the idea is implemented.
An organization that has developed the continuous capactiy to adapt and change. Shared vision, discard their old ways of thinking, look at organization as a system of interrelationships, open communication and people sublimate their personal self-interest and fragmented departmental interest to work together to achieve the organizations' shared vision.
Double loop learning
A process of correcting errors by modifying organizations objectives, policies and standard routines.
How to make a "learning" organization
Establish a strategy to commit to change, innovation and continuous improvement. Redesign the organization's structure. The formal structure can be a serious impediment to learning. Flattening the structure, eliminating or combing departments and increasing the use of cross functional teams, reinforces interdependecne and reduces boundaries. Reshape the organization's culture. Be willing to reward taking risks.
A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, a demand, or a resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
Stressors associated with workload, pressure to complete tasks and time urgency.
Stressors that keep you from reaching your goals - for example - red tape, office politics confusion over job responsibilities.
Employees who have a stronger affective commitment
To their organization can transfer psychological stress into greater focus and higher sales performance, whereas employees with low levels of commitment perform worse under stress.
Having resources to cope with stress
Is just as important in offsetting it as demands are in increasing it.
Physiological stress symptoms
Headaches, high blood pressure and heart disease, ulcers, irritability, difficulty making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accident proneness.
Psychological Stress symptoms
Anxiety, depression, decrease in job satisfaction. Jobs that make mulitple and conflicting demands or that lack clarity about the incumbents' duties and authority and responsibiitlies incrase both stress and dissatisfaction.
Behavioral stress symptoms
Productivity, absenteeism and turnover. Changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting and sleep disorders. Inverted "U" relationship between stress and job performance. The right amount of stress is optimal too little or too much creates diseconomies of work. Inverted U is not empirical.
It appears from several studies that high stress jobs
Can be very detrimental to your health and can be life threatening, stroke, heart attack.
To appraise the total amount of stress an individual is under,
We have to sum up his or her opportunity stresses and constraint stresses and demand stresses.
An employee can take personal responsibility for reducing stress levels. Individual strategies that have proven effective include
Time management techniques, increased physical exercise, relations training and expanded social support networks. . Make daily lists of activities to be accomoplsihed. Prioritize activities by importance and urgency. Schedule activities according to the priorities set and knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding part of your job when you are most alert and productive.
Demands to work long hours lends to stress and this stress can be
Reduced by such resources of social support as having friends or family with which to talk is a global phenomenon.
****Current view is not the
Interactionist approach. Conflict is good to get things moving however once you start conflict you cannot easily predict what will happen. Most current approach. We manage conflict. If you can manage conflict at a low level you can resolve it easier. Manage it before it gets larger but do not stir it up.
****In order to have people express their ideas
You may need to physcially remove one person to get a good "reading" on what is happening.
*****We like people to speak their mind but once
A decision has been made we want them to work together with us to achieve the goal.
The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict. Go into this having the intention you will get what you want. Not that you will compromise.
*****With conflict we get better
Decisions. If we are open enough and communicated - both could win.
*****Dr. Powell gave an example regarding negotiation. It was about his
Parent's death and the sale of the farm. Siblings did not want to hold the note. Dr Powell told the buyer if he would pay full price they would hold the note.
*****Dr. Powell made another point about negotiation he demonstrated a tatic.
His feet were not moving. Silence. He did not leave. If you appear overeager you may not get what you want.
****Magic words in purchasing an item.
"Can I get a better price on this?" You never know unless you ask.
*****Personality traits have an
Impact on success. Be more assertive. Be willing to ask for the outrageous or dig in. Not easily embarrassed.
****On exam - Mediator
Mediator - A neutral third party who faciliteates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives.
*****On exam - Arbitrator
A third party to a negotiation who ahs the authority to dictate an agreement. Binding agreement.
****If compromise does not get you where you want
To be in negotiation, the next position you take is accomodation.
Is how job tasks are formally divided. What works best for our service, product, or the people we have?
****Strict chain of command
Is not longer common. Through technology is is easier to get the ear of the boss. Moses exemplified the "chain of command" theory.
****On Exam - Span of control for a research scientist
Education changes it to widespan. Wider spans of management increase organizational efficiency.
***Strength of Bureaucracy
Fundtion of economices of sacle. Minimum duplication of personnel and euipment. Enhanced communication.
Creates dual lines of authority. Combines functional and product departmentalization.
*****Skunk works Lockheed Lil Abner
R and D from everyone -no rules lax called their own shots. State of the art flying so high cannot be detected. Subculture example.
*****Culture of EDS vs. GM
When EDS see's a snake they kill it. When GM sees a snake they select a committee and discuss how to take care of it. Not very responsive.
****Herb Keller SW. What is the secret to your success.
Our people. He could say that because they were not going anywhere else. He had created loyalty.
1st Cut - Not meeting qualifications
2nd Cut - More thorough check (fit for culture, skills needed contigent offer.
3rd Cut - Drug test, psychological profile, background check
Most employers want reference information
But few give it out because of litigations worries. Employee could come back to previous employer and do damage. Praise can get you into trouble as well if the employee does not perform well at the new job.
*****Why do organizations put money into training?
Cannot measure effectiveness but companies send their best employees. Do it as a reward to the most loyal people. Costly - housing, flight, food
****Dr. Powell is most familiar with which training method?
Classroom lecturees, videotapes, seminars.
*****Managers important duty is
To find a way to measure individual outcome. Without good notes you do not have a good basis to evaluate an employee.
Graphic Rating Scale
An evaluations method in which the evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale.
A performance evaluation method that combine major elements from the critical incident and graphic rating scale approaches.
BARS - Employees based on items along a continuum but the points are examples of actual behavior on a given job rather than general descriptions or traits.
Group Order Ranking
An evaluation method that places employees into a particular classification such as quartiles 10%, 20%, 40% (Grades at the University are done like this)
An evaluation method that ranks/orders employees from best to worst. 1st, 2nd, 3rd.
****Salary is not everything
Enjoy people you work with, flexibility, fringe benefits (onsite fitness).
*****To move employees from be frozen
Shake up compensation rewards - will unfreeze them. Navy's would burn their ships so they had to be successful.
*****So employees can see what others are doing
Do not have a clean desk. Leave everything out so others can glean from you.