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25 terms

Scrotum, testes & spermatic cord

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Gubernaculum
fibrous cord connecting the primordial testis to the anterolateral abdominal wall at the site of the future deep ring of the inguinal canal
processus vaginalis
a peritoneal diverticulum
traverses the developing inguinal canal
carries muscular and facial layers of the anterolateral wall into the primordial scrotum
by 12th week of development the testis has migrated to the pelvis
by 28 weeks it lies close to the inguinal ring
at 32 weeks it enters the scrotum
Spermatic cord
suspends the testis and scrotum and contains structures running to and from the testis
begins at the deep inguinal ring to the inferior epigastric vessels
pass through the inguinal canal
exits at superficial inguinal ring
ends in scrotum at posterior border of the testis
Internal Spermatic Fascia
derived from the transversalis fascia
creamsteric fascia
derived from the fascia of both the superficial and deep surfaces of the internal oblique muscle
external spermatic fascia
derived from the external oblique aponeurosis
ductus deferens
muscular tubbe
conveys sperm from the epididymis fo the ejaculatory duct
testicular artery
arises from the aorta
supplies the testis and epididymis
cremasteric artery
branch of inferior epigastric artery
pampiniform plexus
venous network
drains into right or left testicular veins
nerves
point and shoot
point (erection)=parasympathetic
shoot (ejaculation)=sympathetic

nerves T11-L1 (sympathetic)
genital branch of genitofemoral nerve (L1, L2)
Scrotum
cutaneous sac with 2 layers
heavily pigmented skin
dartos muscle/fascia
dartos muscle/fascia
layer of smooth muscle fibers responsible for the rugae
helps to regulate temperature (along with cremaster muscle)
Epididymis
lies on posterior surface of testis
covered by tunica vaginalis (except at its posterior margin
Testis
suspended in scrotum by spermatic cord
left usually hangs lower than right
Hydrocele
accumulation of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis or in a persistent part of the processus vaginalis
Hematocele
accumulation of blood in the tuncia vaginalis and results from rupture of testicular blood vessels after trauma to the spermatic cord or testis
Spermatocele
cyst containing sperm that develops in the epididymis just above the testis
Varicocele
results from dilations of tributaries of the testicular vein in the pampiniform plexus
can be caused from defective valves in pampiniform plexus of compression of a testicular vein
"bag of worms"
Testicular neoplasm
metastasizes directly to the lumbar nodes
Distinguishes it from a malignancy of the scrotum
Scrotum CA metastesizes to supefricial inguinal nodes
Malignancy is most common cause of a painless testicular mass
Cryptorchidism
Failure of one or both testes to descend completely into the scrotum
most common location is in the inguinal canal
sterility possible
increased risk of testicular cancer
Inguinal canal in females
contains round ligament of the uterus and a remnant of the processus vaginalis
The round ligament is the remnant of the gubernaculum
Metastasis in the round ligament
cancer of the uterus may metastasize to superficial inguinal nodes along lymphatic vessels that course iwth the round ligament
Epididymitis
inflammation of the epididymis
most common cause of tender scrotal swelling
may be associated with std's and mumps
Orchitis
inflammation of the testis
may be associated with std's and mumps