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Sepals, petals, stamens, carpels

order of circle from outside to inside

embryo sacs

the female gametophyes are egg-producing structures that form within the ovules in ovaries

complete flowers

all four organs

incomplete flowers

lacking one or more of the four floral parts

bisexual flower

both stamen and carpel

unisexual flower

either stamen or carpel, but not both


staminate and carpellate flowers are located on the same individual plant


staminate flowers and carpellate flowers on seperate plants


eventually give rise to haploid male gametophyte




most common anti-selfing mechanism in flowering plants, the ability of a plant to reject its own pollen and the pollen of closely related individuals


a food storing tissue of the seed

double fertilization

The union of two sperm cells with different nuclei of the embryo sac. Ensures that the endosperm will develop only in ovules where the egg has been fertilized.


the point at which the cotyledons are attached


embryonic root


the portion of the embryoic axis about the cotyledons

vegetative reproduction

many plant species clone themselves by asexual reproduction

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