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35 terms

Muscle terminology

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Muscle fiber
A skeletal muscle cell.
Fascicle
Small bundle of muscle fibers.
Tendons
Fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones.
Epimysium
Layer of connective tissue that closely surrounds a skeletal muscle.
Perimysium
extends inward from the epimysium and separates muscle tissue into fascicles.
Endomysium
Layer of connective tissue with in a fascicle that surrounds muscle fibers.
sarcolemma
Membrane of a muscle cell.
Sarcoplasm
Cytoplasm of a muscle cell that contains many oval nuclei and mitochondria.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Stores and pumps calcium during muscle stimulation.
sacromere
Basic unit of a muscle cell. From Z-line to Z-line.
Neuromuscular junction
area where a nerve cell stimulates a muscle cell
Motor Neuron
Neurons that stimulate structures in our body.
Motor Unit
One set of muscle cells stimulated by a single neuron.
Synapse
Space between synaptic bulb and muscle.
Neurotransmitter
Chemical messengers released from neurons.
motor end-plate
area of a muscle cell where receptors are found.
Prime mover
Muscle that provide a particular body movement.
Antagonist
Muscle that provides opposite movement of a prime mover
Synergist
Muscle that assists a prime mover.
Origin
End of a muscle that attaches to a relatively immovable part.
Insertion
End of a muscle that attaches to a movable part. Always moves toward the origin.
Fast twitch fibers
Burn ATP faster to provide fast movements. They use less oxygen and are pale in color.
Slow twitch fibers
Burn ATP slower and allow posture muscles to have stamina. They are red in color because they use more oxygen.
Myoglobin
Protein in muscles that give them their red color. They allow muscles to store oxygen.
Threshold
Minimum amount of neurotransmitter needed to cause a muscle contraction.
all or none principle
Cells either contract or they don't because a cell cant partially contract.
Tetani
long sustained contraction.
twitch
short contraction
isometric muscle contraction
muscle contraction where the length of the muscle remains the same. ( never produces movement)
isotonic muscle contraction
muscle contraction where the muscle tone doesn't change. (always produces movement)
Muscle fatigue
Muscles produce less force when continuously used.
Muscle soreness
indicates damage or potential for damage.
Atrophy
Proteins are broken down when muscles aren't used, muscle gets smaller
Hypertrophy
Proteins are made when muscles are used, muscle gets bigger.
Rigor mortis
Contraction of Skeletal muscle cells after death.