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Professional Baking Chapter 10
Terms in this set (75)
A batter too thick to be poured but will drop in lumps from spoon
A batter that is liquid enough to be poured
A baked product made of thin batter, leavened only by steam & characterized by large holes/cavities on the inside
The development of elongated holes inside muffin products
2 Types of DOUGH MIXTURES for Quick Breads
1. Soft doughs (biscuits - rolled out & cut into shapes)
2. Batters (pour batters & drop batters)
What type of gluten development do you want in quick breads?
Only slight - you don't want quick bread too chewy - you want TENDERNESS
Is yeast used for quick breads?
No yeast. Chemical leavening agents are used (baking powder, baking soda) & steam
Do quick breads need fermentation time?
No. Yeast is not used
Examples of batters?
Muffins, loaf breads, pancakes
Should you mix batters a little or a lot?
A LITTLE! Keep gluten development low. Mix only until the dry ingredients are moist.
What keeps gluten development low in mixing batter for quick breads?
Mix very little, plus fat & sugar
What happens if you overmix batter?
Toughness & Tunnelling (the development of elongated holes inside muffin products)
Example of soft dough?
How long should you knead biscuit dough?
Lightly. Just enough to develop flakiness but not toughen product.
What is the exception among quick breads?
What type of dough/batter are popovers made from?
How are popovers leavened?
Popovers are leavened with steam.
What develops inside popovers while baking?
Very large holes
What type of flour is used for making popovers? Why?
Bread flour. Popover structure must be strong enough to hold up the large holes. Batter mixed well to develop gluten. HIGH % OF EGGS used to give structure.
3 mixing methods for most quick breads
1. biscuit method
2. muffin method
3. creaming method
biscuits, scones, similar products. Sometimes called pastry method (it's like method used for mixing pie pastry)
muffins, pancakes, waffles, loaf-type or sheet-type quick breads.
Is muffin method long & hard or fast & easy?
fast & easy
What is danger of muffin batter?
Overmixing can cause toughness. Mix only until dry ingredients become moist!
Should muffin batter be smooth?
No. Only mix until ingredients are moistened. Batter may be lumpy.
If loaf breads and coffee cakes have high fat & sugar, can they be mixed more or less?
They can be mixed more without becoming tough.
Muffin method is not suitable for formulas high in ___________.
Quick breads made using muffin method are not as ___________ and cakelike as muffins using the creaming method.
Which mixing method is used for formulas high in fat?
method that begins with the blending of fat & sugar (cakes, cookies, etc.)
Is the creaming moeth more or less time consuming than the muffin method?
More time consuming
What is the benefit of using the creaming method?
produces fine textured goods and less danger of overmixing
Why does the creaming method mix together the fat & sugar first?
Mixes ingredients together more evenly/uniformly
If a biscuit uses creaming method, what is the result?
more cakelike & less flaky
PROCEDURE - BISCUIT METHOD
1. scale ingredients
2. sift dry ingredients together
3. cut in fat (until it looks like cornmeal)
4. combine liquid ingredients in separate bowl
5. add to dry ingredients & mix just until soft dough forms (DON'T OVERMIX!)
6. Bring dough to bench & knead lightly (press it out & fold in half - rotate 90 degrees between folds)
7. Repeat 6 - 10 times (about 30 seconds) (Dough should be soft & slightly sticky)
BISCUIT METHOD. If you use slightly more shortening and cut it in less (pieces are size of peas), what will it produce?
BISCUIT METHOD. What if you skip the kneading step?
You get very tender biscuits with less volume (not as high)
BISCUIT METHOD. What does overkneading do to biscuits?
PROCEDURE - MUFFIN METHOD
1. Sift together dry ingredients
2. combine all liquids, including melted fat
3. Add liquids to dry. Mix only until batter is moist. Will look lumpy. DO NOT OVERMIX!
4. Pan and bake immediately!
MUFFIN METHOD. What happens if you do not bake immediately after mixing?
Loss of volume will happen (Muffins won't rise as high)
PROCEDURE - CREAMING METHOD (BISCUITS)
1. Cream fat, sugar, salt, milk powder
2. Gradually (little by little) add eggs
3. Add water or milk (liquid)
4. Sift together flour & baking powder in separate bowl.
5. Add to liquids & mix to a smooth dough.
PROEDURE - CREAMING METHOD (MUFFINS, LOAVES, COFFEE CAKES)
1. Cream fat, sugar, salt, spices, milk powder until light
2. Mix in eggs in 2 or 3 stages
3. Sift dry ingredients (flour, baking powder) together in separate bowl
4. Stir liquid ingredients together in separate bowl
5. Add dry ingredients alternately with liquids into creamed mixture (ex: 1/4 dry until just blended, 1/3 liquid until just blended, repeat until done)
Remember to scrape down sides of bowl for even mixing!
MAKEUP OF BISCUITS
1. Roll out dough into uniform sheets 1/2 in (1 cm) thick
2. Cut into desired shape
3. Place 1/2 in apart on greased/paper lined baking sheet
4. Apply egg wash or milk to brown
5. Bake ASAP
When cutting biscuits with round hand cutters, you should cut straight __________.
DOWN. Cut straight down. DO NOT TWIST CUTTER!
When cutting biscuits, why should you space the cuts as closely together as possible?
So you don't waste dough. Minimize leftover scraps.
If you use the leftover scraps after cutting out biscuits, how will the biscuits made from the scraps taste?
How can you cut biscuits to eliminate scraps?
Cut into squares of triangles with pastry cutter knife or roller cutters.
When cutting biscuits with a knife, you should cut _____________ down and ___________ drag knife.
cut STRAIGHT DOWN and DO NOT DRAG KNIFE!
When making up muffins you should make sure tins and loaf pans are _______________
greased & floured
When making up corn bread, sheet pans should be _______________________
greased or lined with silicone paper
Do muffins rise better with paper liners or just a greased tin pan?
When pouring muffin batter into tins, do not _____________.
DO NOT STIR OR MIX the batter. It will toughen it!
What is the best way to pour muffin batter into tins?
Scoop batter from OUTSIDE EDGE of bowl. Do not stir!
Formulas for muffins and quick loaf breads in this Chapter should be thought of breads and not tea cakes. Why?
Formulas use less fat & sugar than rich, oily muffins sold in stores today.
Batters for muffins and quick loaf breads can be interchanged. What does this mean?
If the batter was a bread batter, you can make muffins out of it. If it was a muffin batter, you can make bread out of it.
When preparing biscuits, the fat should be cut into dry ingredients until mixture looks like ________________.
What happens if muffin batter is overmixed?
Toughness & Tunnelling
Why must popover batter be mixed well?
to develop gluten so structure can hold up and make holes.
Why might a baker choose to prepare a quick bread using the creaming method rather than the biscuit or muffin method?
Use creaming method if formula is high in fat. Produces fine texture & has less danger of overmixing. Cakelike result.
Which mixing method requires some kneading before ready for makeup?
Quick bread soft doughs are used to make
biscuits & scones
The quick bread that uses no chemical leaveners of yeast is called a
popover (uses steam!)
Overmixing muffin dough can result in
toughness & tunnelling
This mixing method results in a lumpy batter
This mixing method is best for quick bread formulas high in fat and sugar
Brushing the tops of biscuits with an egg wash before baking helps them
When spooning muffin mix into tins, it's best to
scoop batter from edge
Muffin batters are easily used to make
Quick breads high in sugar ad fats are sometimes called
Popovers derive their structure from bread flour and
This type of bread is a wide variety of cakes, shortbreads or cookies. dates back to Middle Ages. Spices used.
Explain how gingerbread came to sweetened.
First with honey.
Then with sugarcane.
Last with molasses.
If you made a batch of muffins that came out of the oven with strange, knobby shapes, what would you expect to be the reason?
Overmixing caused irregular shapes, toughness & tunnelling
What is the most important difference between the biscuit method and the muffin bethod?
Knead the biscuit method. Muffin method only mix until batter is just moist (it will be lumpy)
Why do popovers require more mixing than other quick breads?
Popovers have no chemical leaveners or yeast. Uses steam, bread flour & eggs to help rise. You must mix more to develop gluten to hlod up the structure and create the holes in baked good.
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