Terms in this set (81)
the inner layer of the atmosphere containing most of the earth's air
Physical Properties of Troposphere
Temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunhshine, cloud cover, and wind direction and speed.
Temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunhshine, cloud cover, and wind direction and speed. Short term properties at a particular time and place
How Meteorologists Obtain Information
Ships, aircrafts, weather balloons, radar, and satellites
Atmospheric pressures, precipitation, temperatures, wind speeds, and locations of air masses and fronts
The boundary between two air masses with different temperatures and densities. Most dramatic change in weather.
Boundary between an advancing warm air mass and the cooler one it is replacing
Leading edge of an advancing mass of cold air
Approaching cold front produce fast, towering clouds
An air mass with high pressure that contains cool, dense air and descends towards earth's surface and becomes warmer.
Low pressure air mass produces cloud or stormy weather and less dense warm air spirals inward.
Violent storm that forms over land. Has two or more small vortexs that move around the center of a large vortex. USA has most tornadoes
Hurricane or typhoon. Takes a long time to form. Easy to track path and wind speed and warn people who could be hit. Has long term ecological and economic benefits
1999. Flushed excess nutrients from land run off and rotting vegetation. Carved 12 channels from barrier islands and let huge quantities of fresh water into bays and marshes. Reduced brown tides, increased sea grass growth, and fish/shellfish growth
Regions general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions. Average temperature and average precipitation are major factors
What determines global air circulation patterns?
Uneven heating of the earth's surface, seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation, rotation of the earth on its axis, long term variations in the amount of solar energy striking the earth and properties of air and water
Uneven heating of the earth's surface
Air heats at different parts of the equator, tropical regions are hotter, polar regions are colder and temperate regions in between have average temperatures
Seasonal change in temperature and precipitation
Earth's axis causes opposites temperatures in the hemispheres
Rotation of the earth on its axis
Prevents air currents from movie due north and south of the equator. Results in formation of convection cells of swirling air masses that transfer heat and water.
Long term variations in the amount of solar energy striking the earth
Caused by occasional changes in solar output and slight planetary shifts in which the earth's axis wobbles as it rotates.
Properties of air and water
Cyclical convection cells circulate air, heat and moisture from place to place, making different climates
Occurs when a matter warms, becomes less dense and rises within its surrondings.
Redistribute heat recieved by sun and influence climate and vegetation. Driven by wind and earth's rotation
Cold, nutrient-rich bottom water come up to the surface and bringing plant nutrients as well as supporting large populations of plankton, zooplankton, fish and birds
ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation)
Climate pattern where the prevailing westerly winds weaken or cease, surface water among the south and north American coasts becomes warmer, and the upwellings are surpressed (reduces primary productivity)
Sometims follow El Nino. Means more Atlantic Hurricanes, colder winters in Canada, warmer and drier winters in the south, wet winters in the north west, torrential rains in Southeast Asia, lower wheat yields in Argentina and more wild fires in Florida
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, synthetic chlorofluorocarbons. Allow visible light and infrared radition as well as UV radiation from the sun to pass through the troposphere
Natural warming effect when heat escapes into space and makes troposphere warmer
Alters precipitation patterns, shifts areas where crops can be grown, raises sea level, and shifts areas for life.
Warm layers of air that prevent churning gases in the troposphere from entering the stratosphere. Determines average temperature of climates.
Areas that are affected by topographic features that create local climates that differ from the climates of the region. Example: rain shadow effect
Rain Shadow effect
Most air blows inland from ocean and reaches a mountain range, cools and expands. Rain falls on wind facing slope but not on other side. IE, different climates.
Affect local climates by created sea breezes and land breezes
ocean to land breezes that come during the day
land-to-ocean breezes that come at night
terrestrial regions with characteristic types of natural, undisturbed ecological communities adapted to the climate of the region
Variations in Biomes
Microclimate, soil types, natural and human caused disturbances. Make them not uniform.
Distance from the equator
Elevation above sea level
Have to lose a lot of heat and conserve water for survival.
Survive by having no leaves, storing water and synthezing food, and reducing water loss by only opening their stomata at night
tend to be broad leaf evergreen plants. LArge surface area allows them to collect sunlight and radiate heat
Broad leaf deciduous plants
Oak and maple trees. Survive drought and cold by shedding leaves and being dormant
Coniferous Evergreen Plants
Cone bearing plants that keep their needles all year. The waxing coating slows down heat loss and evaporation
Area where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Precipitation is usually scattered and under 25 centimeters. Cover 30% of earth's land. Heat stored in ground escapes at night into the atmosphere.
Temperatures are usually high and there is a little rain that only falls for two months.
Day time temperatures are high in summer and lower in winter. More precipitation. Sparse vegetation. Adapted animals.
Winters are cold, summers are hot, and precipitation is low
in between desert and grassland. Adapted to long dry spells and short heavy rains
Desert Themes in Plants
Beat the heat and every drop of water counts. Plants have waxy levels and use deep roots. Plants drop leaves and become dormant. Seeds germinate, grow and carpet desert after rain, produce seeds and die
Desert Themes in Animals
Small. Hide in cool areas or burrows. Physical adaptations to conserve water, like outer coverings to reduce water loss through evaporation or having dry feces to reduce water loss. Become dormant
Human Effects: Desert
Destroy easily because deserts take a long time to recover because of slow plant growth, low species diversity, slow nutrient cycling and water shortages
Regions with enough precipitation to have grass or trees. Persist because of seasonal drought, grazing by herbivores and occasional fires. Made up of tropical, temperate, and polar.
Areas with high average temps, low to moderate rainfall, and a a long dry season. Savanna is a sort of tropical grassland
Warm temperatures year round, two prolonged dry seasons and abundant rain for the rest of the year. Have lots of grazing and browsing animals.Gives room for specialized eating habits
Animals who eat grass and herbs
Hoofed animals that eat twigs and leaves
Vast expanses of plains and hills in America, Europe and Asia. Cold winters, hot and dry summers, with sparse rainfall. Made up of tall grass prairies and short grass prairies, pampas, veldt, and steppes
Arctic tundra. South of the arctic polar cap. Bitterly cold, with frigid winds. Covered by ice and snow.
Found in polar grasslands. Frozen layer of soil that forms when the water freezes.
Polar Grassland Animals
Survive with thick fur, feathers, and compact bodies as well as by living underground
Occurs above limit of tree growth but below snow line on mountains. Gets more sunlight. Has no permafrost.
Temperature shrubland. Occurs in 'Mediterranean Climate'. Mild winters and hot summers. Dense grow of low growing shrubs
Survive by storing food reserves in fire resistant routs and have seeds that sprout after hot fire
Undisturbed areas with higher rainfall. Made up of tropical, temperate and boreal.
Tropical rain forest
Broadleaf evergreen forest near the equator. Have warm temperature, high humidity and heavy rain fall. Have canopy layer. Little wind, many decomposers.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Warm year round and get lots of rainfall from monsoon season before a long dry season. Have deciduous trees and drought-tolerant evergreen treas. After long dry season, may result in tropical scrub forests
Temperate Decidous Forests
Moderate temperatures. Long summers and cold winters with lots of rainfall. Plants drop leaves and become dormant. Leaf litter is a storehouse of nutrients. Sometimes cleared out and replaced with tree plantations
forests of only one tree species
Evergreen Coniferous Forests
Boreal forests or taigas. Short summers with long winters. Little sunlight in winter, much in summer. Pine cones and needles on trees. Plants can withstand cold and can take advantage of sunlight to grow new needles. Slow decomposition due to low temperature, waxing coating of needles and high soil acidity.
Form in evergreen coniferous forests when the soil becomes water logged. Acidic bogs
Temperate Rain Forests
Ocean moderates the temperature. Winters are mild and summers are cool.
Contain majority of forests. Contain rare species. Regulate climates. Affect sea level. Play role in hydrologic cycle.
Above a certain altitude on a mountain where snow is frozen permanently. Make mountain soils prone to erosion when vegetation is removed by natural disbalances or human activity
Islands of biodiversity
free standing mountains surronded by a sea of lower landscapes
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