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Oceanography Chapter 14
Terms in this set (142)
The ___ loop describes a huge ecosystem that is completely comprised of very small organisms.
Some newer environmental ___ are able to measure the concentrations of chlorophyll in the ocean, and this can be related to the level of primary productivity.
These large, multicellular algae produce between one percent and five percent of the primary productivity in the ocean. They are classified as protistans, and are very different from vascular plants.
Colored compounds that many autotrophs possess are known as ___ pigments. They are closely associated with chlorophyll molecules and help the autotroph absorb light at different wavelengths. They enhance photosynthesis, particularly at deeper depths.
Seaweeds are actually a form of multicellular ___ and are not true plants.
This term refers to plankton organisms that spend their whole lives in the plankton community. Most phytoplankton and zooplankton fall in this category.
Photosynthesis would not be possible without this acting as a catalyst.
The presence of a ___ collection of biomass may inhibit photosynthesis because the large numbers of organisms would interfere with the penetration of light to autotrophs at deeper depths.
A plankton ___ is a period in which phytoplankton in the region grow very rapidly. This rapid growth may deplete nonconservative nutrients including nitrate, phosphate, silicate and iron.
People should avoid eating organisms that are ___ feeders during the summer months to minimize the likelihood they will be affected by a harmful algal bloom.
This is a biochemical process involving the release of chemical energy that is stored in food (carbohydrates). Water and carbon dioxide are formed as byproducts.
These nutrients vary in concentration based on the level of biological activity. This is the most important limiting factor for primary productivity during and immediately after a plankton bloom.
The calcium carbonate shells of these organisms are major contributors to calcareous oozes.
Phytoplankton productivity in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere is typically greatest in the ___ spring.
The ___ sun angle at high latitudes usually limits primary productivity. However, the long daylight hours in the summer along with strong upwelling can result in large plankton blooms.
Measuring conditions or taking ocean samples ___ at a number of points can be useful in understanding the interrelationships between individual species and the physical conditions that exist.
This refers to brown algae. This type is the most familiar to people on the beach. The species kelp is a good example.
The terms plankton and nekton refer to a ___ rather than specific features or characteristics of an organism. They are categorized based on ecological connections and not their evolutionary history, feeding patterns, or biological structures.
Approximately ___ percent of the larger zooplankton are small shrimplike animals called copepods, whose typical size is about half of a millimeter.
A ___ factor is a biological or physical necessity that can inhibit the normal activities of an organism if it is present in a concentration that is either too high or too low.
The most abundant zooplankton can be found in the ___ loop.
Some large species of seaweeds such as kelp actually ___ carbohydrates into the ocean. This supply of food often supports large communities of organisms.
Biologists can directly measure the rate of primary productivity by monitoring the movement of carbon dioxide molecules that have been ___ with radioactive carbon-14 atoms.
These are viruses that affect phytoplankton.
Some examples of ___ include most adult zooplankton and larval fishes.
These are accessory pigments in diatoms that aid chlorophyll in absorbing sunlight.
Most ___ algae live in polar and temperate habitats at latitudes higher than 30 degrees. Few species live in the tropics.
Research has been done to see if artificially ___ iron to the ocean can influence the Earth's climate. The evidence is not yet conclusive, but this would appear to have a small effect.
Some factors thought to ___ to harmful algal blooms include unusually warm surface temperatures, lower than usual salinity, optimal nutrient concentrations, adequate sunlight, and a mechanism that concentrates the dinoflagellates in the vicinity.
These are the calcium carbonate disks attached to the cell walls of coccolithophores. These can reflect enough sunlight in some cases to permit satellites to measure coccolithophore concentrations.
This is the rigid cell wall of a diatom. It is made primarily out of silica (silicon dioxide), and shares many characteristics of glass. This transparent cell wall makes it easy for sunlight to enter, and this contributes to their photosynthetic efficiency.
The root systems of mangroves can trap ___ and provide habitat for small fish. As a result, they can stabilize shorelines and help shorelines expand.
This term refers to nonvascular plants capable of photosynthesis.
Most of the mangroves in south Florida consist of the ___ mangrove species (Rhizophora).
This term refers to the autotrophs, or primary producers, that are part of the plankton community. A huge, nearly invisible mass of these organisms exists in the euphotic zone.
Diatoms contribute to the development of this type of ooze.
Heterotrophic ___ in the microbial loop decompose organic material, convert organic material into inorganic nutrients, and dissolve organic material for their own use.
Phytoplankton are ___ to all life on Earth because they are the bases of many food webs, they produce an enormous amount of food through photosynthesis, and they generate large amounts of oxygen that can move into the atmosphere.
The open ocean area with the ___ annual productivity is off the west coast of equatorial South America. This is due to upwelling near the geographic equator.
The activity of a large collection of zooplankton and the decomposition of biological debris can create an oxygen ___ zone below the surface zone.
The discovery of enormous numbers of plankters, both large and small, has encouraged scientists to develop the current system used to classify these organisms on the basis of this characteristic.
This form of plankton have the smallest size. Most viruses fall into this category.
Upwelling is uncommon in ___ oceans because of the strong density stratification that develops due to the warm surface temperatures. This results in ocean waters that are often a clear blue color.
These plants have transportation systems to carry nutrients and food throughout the organism.
The surface waters near Antarctica in this season are among the most productive on Earth. Reasons for this include the runoff of iron from terrestrial glaciers, and the upwelling of nutrients.
Primary productivity can be measured by collecting seawater samples in light and dark ___ and measuring the flow of carbon in both samples.
Most dinoflagellate species have ___ flagella. One propels the organism forward, and the other allows it to control its direction. They are able to orient and position themselves to make the best possible use of the available sunlight and nutrients.
The microecosystem of picoplankton is almost certainly as ___ as the more visible ecosystem consisting of more visible organisms. Picoplankton are often too small to be eaten by many larger organisms.
This is the structure in a non-vascular plant that corresponds to the stem of a vascular plant. Photosynthesis also occurs in this structure.
The compensation depth can ___ depending on the angle of the sun, the turbidity or sediment load, and surface turbulence.
Harmful algal ___ are sometimes referred to as "red tides" because the rapid growth of certain species of dinoflagellates may make the surface of the ocean appear a rusty red color. However, this red color does not always appear.
These are the structures in a non-vascular plant that have the appearance of leaves.
Blades possess photosynthesizing tissue on both sides, ___ gases across their entire surfaces, and may also participate in reproduction.
There is a greater opportunity to exchange nutrient-depleted surface water with nutrient-rich deep water in regions where this physical feature it is either very weak or not present.
These organisms are strong enough to actively swim and go where they would like to go.
This plankter is the most productive species of phytoplankton. They are so efficient at photosynthesis that scientists believe they were major contributors to the oxygen revolution, which was the major increase of oxygen content in the atmosphere.
These are extremely small members of the plankton community. They typically measure between 0.2 and two micrometers across. Despite their small size, they exist in enormous numbers everywhere in the world ocean.
Areas such as the Mediterranean or Sargasso Seas may appear chalky or ___ when the coccolithophore productivity is very high.
Picoplankton appear to encompass an entire ___ of primary producers, herbivores, carnivores, and scavengers that was entirely unknown to scientists until the 1980s. This is an example of a microbial loop. These communities operate on the smallest possible scale.
The ___ of microplankton is typically around 100 million individual organisms per liter of seawater.
These are viruses that infect bacteria.
This term refers to members of the plankton community.
This can be thought of as a naked diatom cell that does not possess the valves that make up a frustule. The lack of a rigid outer layer makes it easier for the diatoms to grow in size as they reproduce.
The dinoflagellates responsible for harmful algal blooms are able to create ___ that can harm marine life, and any terrestrial organisms at higher trophic levels in the same food web.
The thin euphotic zone occupies approximately ___ percent of the ocean volume, but almost all of the marine life in the pelagic zone depends on the primary productivity that occurs here.
One reason these can be highly productive is because their roots can collect nutrients.
Sunlight can be too ___ just below the surface, especially for diatoms, for photosynthesis to occur.
Diatoms have a ___ compensation depth than dinoflagellates because they are more efficient at photosynthesis.
Under ideal conditions, some species of kelp can grow as much as ___ centimeters (20 inches) per day.
This is the collection of root-like projections that fastens a non-vascular plant to a solid base. It does not supply water and nutrients as would roots in a land plant.
Autotrophic organisms perform ___, just as all animals do. This process uses some of the oxygen and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. Carbohydrate production is usually greater than carbohydrate consumption in the euphotic zone.
The most ___ types of phytoplankton are dinoflagellates and diatoms.
This is the study of the lifestyles of organisms, interactions between organisms, and between organisms and their environments.
This term refers to heterotrophic plankton. Collectively, they are referred to as zooplankters. These are the most numerous primary consumers in the ocean.
These are the largest forms of algae.
Approximately ___ percent of the solar energy absorbed by a diatom can be converted into chemical energy through photosynthesis. This is one of the most efficient conversion rates that we know of.
The ___ of nutrients from deeper depths is critical to the productivity of phytoplankton. Without this process, many nutrients would become limiting factors for photosynthesis.
The ___ marine animals, including whale sharks and baleen whales, usually consume heterotrophic zooplankton. This allows them to maximize the transfer of energy through a short food chain.
This refers to green algae.
Some examples of ___ include large jellyfish and sargassum weeds.
These algaes tend to be smaller and more complex than their green or brown cousins. They excel at capturing dim light, which allows them to live at relatively deep depths.
This is one example of picoplankton. They are sometimes referred to as "blue-green algae" because they are marine photosynthesizers, although they have little relation to other forms of algae.
These are large, flowering plants that live on tropical and subtropical coastal areas. They are classified as angiosperms, which are flowering vascular plants that reproduce through seed-bearing fruit.
Some dinoflagellates appear to be a rusty ___ color due to their accessory pigments. These are the species that are often involved in harmful algal blooms, which is why these blooms are sometimes referred to as red tides.
The White Cliffs of Dover in ___ are the remains of fossilized coccolithophores that have been uplifted by tectonic forces.
Very small plankton can easily slip through a net. They can only be studied by concentrating water samples using a ___ or by catching them in a special filter.
One ___ is approximately equal to 2.5 centimeters.
Primary producers require ___ nutrients to help construct the large organic molecules that make primary productivity possible and to construct skeletons or protective shells.
Some species of non-vascular plants use gas ___ to provide additional buoyancy and help ensure they can reach the sunlight near the surface.
Phytoplankton account for less than ___ percent of the total primary producer biomass, but produce approximately 45 percent of all photosynthesis on the planet.
These organisms drift with the currents, or swim weakly. They are unable to move consistently in a horizontal direction against the motion of the waves or the current flow.
The ___ of fertilizers and chemicals from land is carried by rivers to the ocean, and this may be causing the frequency and severity of algal blooms to increase.
Scientists on this research vessel carried out the first large-scale plankton study in 1925 and 1926. They collected plankton in large nets specially designed to trap very small organisms.
Primary productivity in the ___ regions can be high in the summer, but is very low in the winter due to a lack of sunlight and depleted nutrients.
This compound is oxidized by the enzyme luciferase to emit blue-green light during the process of bioluminescence.
This is the process by which chemical energy is converted into visible light by a living organism. This is a very efficient process that generates light without generating heat.
This is the major pigment in autotrophs that is responsible for light absorption. This is what gives many plants their green color.
This refers to the entire body of an algae or seaweed.
This small arthropod is a zooplankter and the keystone to the Antarctic ecosystem. Collectively, they exceed the total biomass of the global human population.
Chlorophyll is a pigment of this color, and therefore absorbs energy best in the red and violet wavelengths of visible light.
This type of analysis refers to identifying the component parts of the items being studied.
A harmful algal bloom is said to occur when the ___ of nearby organisms is harmed by unusually high concentrations of phytoplankton. Some of these dinoflagellates emit toxins that can be harmful if ingested.
This is a commercial product made from multicellular algae (seaweed). It is widely used as a thickening and emulsifying agent in products such as fabric, adhesives, salad dressing, ice cream, beer, wine and shaving cream.
This type of analysis tries to measure the absolute numbers or the concentrations of species or substances in a particular sample.
Productivity ___ the coast is usually higher than productivity offshore due to a better nutrient supply.
Arctic primary productivity is lower than Antarctic primary productivity due to a lack of these from upwelling.
Many diatoms possess ___ pigments in the yellow and brown color families to make them more efficient at absorbing light. These accessory pigments give most diatoms their characteristic colors.
This is a substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a faster rate or under different conditions (such as at a lower temperature) than would otherwise be possible.
Diatoms store energy in the form of fatty acids and oils. These provide additional ___ to make up for the relatively heavy frustule.
The nearshore ___ ocean areas have very high primary productivity due to plentiful sunlight and adequate nutrient concentrations.
The ___ subpolar ocean areas have very high primary productivity due to plentiful sunlight and adequate nutrient concentrations.
These zooplankton are part of the plankton community while they are young, but adopt a benthic or nektonic lifestyle as adults.
Most of the primary productivity in the ocean occurs in this zone.
Nutrient levels are usually highest near the ___ due to terrestrial runoff and coastal upwelling. As a result, plankton are abundant and productivity is highest.
Organisms classified as plankton are included in every major group of ___ as well as autotrophs capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.
The optimum depth zone for an autotroph is determined by its ___ of accessory pigments, and therefore its color.
The largest zooplankton are jellyfish that may reach diameters greater than ___ feet.
This type of analysis refers to the measurements of numbers or amounts of items being studied.
At this depth, the production of carbohydrates and oxygen by photosynthesis (during daytime) will be equal to the consumption of carbohydrates and oxygen by respiration (throughout the day). Most phytoplankton live above this depth.
Tropical oceans can be thought of as oceanic ___ due to the lack of nutrients and primary productivity. Productivity is low here, and the seasonal variation in productivity is also low.
Generally speaking, the distribution of ___ in the ocean will control the distribution of phytoplankton.
These organisms have no metabolism of their own, and must rely on a host organism for the energy necessary to live and reproduce.
Most phytoplankton generally stay close to the surface where they can absorb ___ light and infrared energy to power the photosynthesis process.
The most productive regions of the ocean are the ___ or middle latitudes above the continental shelves and the southern subpolar zone. This is because they have dependable sunlight and an adequate supply of nutrients.
Most of the world's seaweeds are of this type.
This species of dinoflagellates lives within the tissues of a coral animal in a symbiotic relationship.
This refers to red algae. This is the most numerous type of algae.
This zone is the lower part of the photic zone in which primary producers absorb little sunlight and use more carbohydrates in respiration than they produce by photosynthesis.
Seaweeds usually do better in ___ water, which results in a slower metabolic rate than would be the case in warmer water. Warm water may not contain enough dissolved oxygen to support the seaweed at night.
Some estimates indicate that picoplankton may be responsible for up to ___ percent of the photosynthesis in some parts of the open ocean. This is especially true in the tropics where the availability of nutrients is often low.
The compensation depth usually corresponds to the depth at which the light intensity is about ___ percent of the light intensity at the surface. This is the bottom of the euphotic zone.
These plankton are single celled autotrophs. They usually live freely, but occasionally live within the tissues of other organisms. Most have two whip-like flagella that give these species their characteristic name.
Tropical regions of the ocean open have the deepest ___ compensation depth due to the water clarity, but they are not usually very productive due to the lack of nutrients.
Some examples of ___ include diatoms, dinoflagellates, and some invertebrate larva.
Carbon-14 is a form of carbon that has ___ neutrons in the nucleus instead of six. The extra neutrons make the nucleus unstable, which causes these molecules to decay at a known rate that can be used to estimate the ages of objects or organisms.
The daily ___ migration of krill and some other large plankton can help mix the surface waters and bring nutrients to the euphotic zone. This slow process has been described as calm turbulence.
The most common limiting ___ for photosynthesis in the ocean are sunlight and the availability of nutrients.
Primary productivity is expressed as how much carbon gets ___ into carbohydrates per volume of seawater per unit time.
A ___ is a small, single-celled autotroph that has discs of calcium carbonate attached to the outside of its cell walls. They thrive in brightly lit areas near the ocean surface.
In the open ocean away from coastal regions, a lack of this inorganic nutrient is the most common limiting factor for photosynthesis.
The presence of specific accessory pigments gives most marine plants there ___ colors.
Common marine ___, or flowering plants, include eelgrass, phyllospadix and mangroves.