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APHG Ch. 8 Political Geography

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political geography
the study of the political organization of the world
state
A politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government
territoriality
The attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area. Defined by Robert Sack
sovereignty
a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
territorial integrity
the right of a state to defend soverign territory against incurrsion from other states
mercantilism
a protectionist policy of European states during the 16th-18th centuries that promoted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
nation
a group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political-territorial autonomy
nation-state
a politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space
democracy
government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate soverign and have the final say over what happens within the state
multination state
a state with more than one nation inside its borders (Yugoslavia)
stateless nation
nation that does not have a state
colonialism
rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place; creates unequal cultural and economic relations
scale
Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization.
capitolism
economic model wherein people, corporations, and staes produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit
commodification
the process of placing a price on a good and then buying, selling, and trading the good.
core
Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy.
periphery
Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy.
semiperiphery
place where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
ability
In the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means.
centripetal
forces that tend to unify a country- such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared idealogical objectives, and a common faith
centrifugal
Forces that tend to divide a country-such as international religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
unitary
Centralized government system, generally has a central capital as the focus of power.
federal
A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests-defense, foreign affairs, and the like-yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres.
devolution
movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state.
territorial representation
system wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district
reapportionment
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
splitting
In the context of determining representative districts, the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts; as opposed to the result of majority-minority districts
majority-minority districts
packed districts in which a majority of the opulation is from the minority
gerrymandering
Redistricting for advantage, or the practice of dividing areas into electoral districts to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possible
boundary
vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface, dividing one state territory from another
geometric boundary
boundaries that are drawn using grid systems such as latitude and longitude or township and range
physical-political boundary
boundaries that follow an agreed-upon feature in the physical geographic landscape, such as the center point of a river or the crest of a mountain range
heartland theory
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
critical geopolitics
process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians
unilateralism
world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
supranational organization
an entity composed of three or more states that forgge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals