Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
ANSC 1000; Growth and Development
Terms in this set (50)
What is true growth?
Increase in body weight until mature size is reached (increase in cell size, cell number, mass of bone, muscle, fat and connective tissue)
What is Hyperplasia?
Increase in cell numbers; occurs before birth except for skin, intestinal lining, blood cells, adipose cells (fat cells)
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in cell size; muscle cells, adipose cells, and nerve cells
What does the endoderm become?
GI tract, lung, bladder
What does the Mesoderm become?
Skeleton, skeletal muscle, CT
What does the Ectoderm become?
Skin, hair, brain, spinal cord
What do DNA chains of chromosomes direct?
Growth, development, differentiation processes
When is the largest increase in weight of the fetus?
The last trimester of pregnancy
What are specialized groups of cells that function together?
What are groups of tissues that perform specific functions?
What are a group of organs that function to accomplish a larger function?
What performance changes have occurred in the last 50 years?
Increases market weight, higher Avg. daily gain, lower FE(less lb feed/gain), less fat, more muscle, and less time to market
What is True growth?
Increase in body weight until mature size is reached ( increase in cell size, cell number, and bone, muscle, fat and connective tissue) it DOESNT include excess fat
What is unknown about growth?
Why it starts, how its regulated, and why it stops
What compose the skeletal system?
Bone, teeth and cartilage
What is the function of the skeletal system?
Protects organs and gives basic form and shape to body
What compose the muscular system?
Skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles, and smooth muscles
What are the functions of the skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles?
Skeletal: largest component of red meat products
Smooth: located in digestive, reproduction, and urinary
What compose the circulatory system and what are their functions?
Arteries: transport blood away from the heart
Veins: vessels that carry blood to heart
Lymph: transport lymph (intercellular fluid)
* important for transport of oxygen, nutrients, cellular waster and hormones
What is the endocrine system?
Ductless glands that secrete hormones into blood
What do long bones consist of?
Epiphyses (enlarged ends), Diaphysis (shaft region), Medullary cavity within is filled with bone marrow
What is the compact bone?
Very dense and found at periphery of bone
What is the spongy bone?
Lighter and less dense than compact bone
What is the Epiphyseal plate?
Located at each end of long bones between Epiphyses and diaphysis, consists of cartilage, facilitates bone growth and later ossified to become bone
What cells are involved with bones?
Osteoblasts: bone matrix production (bone cell precursors)
Osteocytes: maintenance of bone matrix (mature Osteoblasts)
What is Osteogenesis?
Formation of bone
What stops long bone growth?
Cartilage growth stops or is overcome by ossification (growth plate closure and fusion into single bone)
What is the Periosteum?
Outer epithelial layer of bone
What are Osteoclasts?
Involved in bone reabsorption; remove bone at inner surface and enlarge the marrow cavity (as animals age, bone reabsorption may exceed bone formation)
What is the primary factor in determining carcass grade quality and is the single best indicator of meat tenderness?
Maturity (as muscle ages, there is increased connective tissue
What are the 3 main products from meat animals and what proportions should they be in?
Fat: optimum amount
Lean Muscle: high proportion
Bone: low proportion
What influence carcass composition?
Frame size, sex, muscling
What 2 factors determine frame size?
Height at the hips (hip height is used because hip height is reached several months before mature height at shoulders) and Age; frame score from 1 (small) to 7 (large)
At what age do animals have very little fat?
Birth (piglets have 2% and temperature control is critical)
As animals grow, what happens with their fat cells?
Fat deposition occurs by enlargement of individual fat cells and for a short period of time, new fat cells develop (mostly hypertrophy, increase in cell size)
What locations is fat deposited?
Kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH) 3.5% carcass weight
Subcutaneous fat (under skin, deposited in layers separated by connective tissue)
Intramuscular fat (seam fat)
Intramuscular fat (marbling)
What type of cow has higher KPH fat?
Dairy breeds have higher kidney fat than beef
What type of fat is the largest quantity in hogs?
Subcutaneous fat; fat in layers under skin
What is the largest quantity of fat in cattle?
Intramuscular fat; fat located between muscles (marbling)
What is the difference between a break joint and a spool joint?
What grows more rapidly as young as opposed to mature animals?
muscle protein grows more rapidly than fat; as an animal matures a greater portion of gain is fat
What sex of animal is usually the leanest?
Intact (uncastrated) males are leanest
Cattle: steer is leaner than heifer
Hogs: gilt is leaner that barrow
What effect does testosterone have on muscling and fat?
Testosterone stimulates muscle development and has an inhibitory influence on fat deposition (bulls and rams have more efficient weight gains/ muscular trim carcass)
What effect does estrogen have on muscling and fat?
Estrogen increases rate of closure of epiphyseal plate; therefore slowing growth
What make up muscles?
Muscle bundles> muscle cells/ fibers> myofibrils> actin and myosin
What are Myofibrils?
Myofibrils are the basic functional unit of the muscle fiber contractile system; made of micro filaments, Actin (thin) and Myosin (thick)
What is muscular development before and after birth?
Prenatal: total muscle cell numbers are established
Postnatal: increase in size
How do muscle fibers grow?
In diameter in length
What is the growth curve?
sigmoid or S-shaped curve for all species; increase in size relative to time
What is the growth rate of bone, fat, and muscle?
Bone is earliest maturing, becomes constant
Muscle is next
Rapid increase in fat occurs when muscle begins to slow down
Sets found in the same folder
ANSC 1000; Lactation
ANSC 1000; TOPIC 9 Nutrion
Introduction; ANSC 1000
Ethical Animal Husbandry
Sets with similar terms
Growth and Development
Animal Science CH2
Growth and Development
KIN 4512 chapter 5
Other sets by this creator
Music Exam 4 (People)
Music exam 4
Other Quizlet sets
Permit test Q's to study
ENT Exam 2 Lecture 1- The exoskeleton
Microeconomics Test 3
Science energy study guide.