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AP Biology: Chapter 51, Animal Behavior
Flashcards for Campbell and Reece AP Biology textbook 7th edition, chapter 51 - Animal Behavior.
Terms in this set (49)
The scientific study of how animals behave, esp. in their natural environments.
"How" a behavior occurs or is modified
"Why" a behavior occurs in the context of natural selection
The study of the evolutionary and ecological basis for a particular animal behavior.
Fixed Action Pattern
A sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried out to completion. Directly linked to simple stimuli.
The external clue that triggers a fixed action pattern
A change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus
An oriented movement toward (positive) or away from (negative) some stimulus.
A regular, long-distance change in location.
A stimulus transmitted from one animal to another
Rhythms that trigger certain behaviors at certain times; circadian plays a major role in daily activity, circannual in yearly activity (migration)
The transmission and reception of signals between animals, an essential element of interactions between individuals. Made up of visual, chemical, tactile, and auditory communication.
Chemical substances used by animals to communicate. Most often utilized by mammals and insects and usually used for reproduction.
Behavior consistently observed in a species that is developmentally fixed (instinct)
Through learning, an organism changes its behavior based on experiences and its environment
A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no new information
The formation at a specific stage in life of a long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object.
Sensitive (Critical) Period
A limited developmental phase during which certain behaviors can be learned
Provided by the outside work, something to which a response will be directed (e.g. Konrad Lorenz in his greylag geese experiment)
The establishment of a memory that reflects the environment's spatial structure
A representation in the nervous system of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings.
The process of relating one situation to another.
Associative learning in which an arbitrary stimulus becomes related to a particular outcome (dog salivating when bell is rung)
"Trial-and-error" learning, in which an animal learns to associate a behavior with a reward or punishment
The process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgement.
The cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles.
A study in which an offspring of one species is put under the care of another species, to test the extent to which the offspring's behavior changes in the new environment
The behavior of identical twins growing up in the same household is compared to the behavior of identical twins growing up in separate households.
Master Regulatory Gene
A gene that directs the expression and activity of many genes with narrower functions
Optimal Foraging Model
Explains the proximate and ultimate causations of foraging behavior with cost/benefit analysis.
Mated individuals form no long-lasting relationships or strong pair-bonds.
Mated individuals remain together for a longer time, forming stronger pair-bonds
An individual from one sex mates with several of the other
One male mating with many females, most common form of polygamous mating
Opposite of polygyny, one female mates with many males
Members of one sex choose mates of the other based on the other's characteristics
Members of the same sex compete for mates.
A contest that determines which competitor gains access to a certain resource, often food or a mate
Evaluates alternative strategies in situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all individuals involved.
Ways in which an animal behaves that decreases individual fitness but increases the fitness of the population.
The idea that a gene can proliferate itself throughout a population by causing an individual to behave altruistically in helping members of the same species that it is closely related to (who also have that gene) reproduce.
rB > C
B = number of offspring produced by the beneficiary
C = the number of offspring fewer that the altruist would produce.
r = coefficient of relatedness, the fraction of genes that are shared
The natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing the reproductive success of relatives.
An animal aiding a member of the same species who is not closely related
Learning through observing the actions of others.
A system of information transfer through social learning or teaching that influences the behavior of individuals in a population
A behavior in which individuals copy the mate choice of others.
The discipline through which human culture is related to evolutionary theory.
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